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Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 76-98 : The Dhūta Of Abondonment Of Conciet

Published: 18.04.2011
Updated: 02.07.2015

6.76 evaṃ te sissā diyā ya rāo ya, aṇupuvveṇa vāiyā tehiṃ mahāvῑrehiṃ paṇṇāṇamaṃtehiṃ.

In this way, the disciples are taught in the proper order day and night by the wise valiant masters.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 76

In the Cūrṇi, the ancient tradition of teaching day and night has been recorded.[1]

6.77 tesiṃtie paṇṇāṇamuvalabbha hiccā uvasamaṃ phārusiyaṃ samādiyaṃti.

Despite having gained knowledge and practised tranquillity from them, some disciples, being intoxicated by knowledge, show arrogance.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 77

Having achieved knowledge from the wise valiant masters, the disciples who had practised[2] tranquillity, being intoxicated by knowledge, show arrogance. In the Cūrṇi and the Vṛtti, the tranquillity is explained as threefold, viz., tranquillity of knowledge, tranquillity of faith, tranquillity of conduct.

'Arrogance' means insulting the wisdom of the preceptor and the like, on account of the insolence born of knowledge.[3] In the Cūrṇi and the Vṛtti, this has been expounded in detail.[4]

6.78 vasittā baṃbhaceraṃsi āṇaṃ 'taṃ ṇo' tti maṇṇamāṇā.

Even while practising celibacy, they (i.e., the arrogant disciples) refute the injunction of the preceptor as not genuine commandment of the Jina.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 78

'Celibacy' means conduct[5] or living with the preceptor. 'Injunction' means the words of Jina or of the scripture.[6] Even though practicing celibacy,[7] the aforementioned disciples reject the injunction insolently, adopting an attitude of arrogance.[8] They adorn their body, attraching importance to easy life. Nor do they go out for alms-begging. Being indulgent in tasty food, they do not observe the discipline of alms-begging. Instigated by others, they claim that the preceptor's injunctions are not in accord with the genuine commandment of the Jina. By such sophistry, they transgress the commandment of the Lord.

6.79 agghāyaṃ tu soccā ṇisamma samaṇuṇṇā jmssāmo ege ṇikkhamma te - asaṃbhavaṃtā viḍajjhamāṇā, kāmehiṃ giddhā ajjhovavaṇṇā. samāhi-māghāyamajhosayaṃtā, satthārameva pharusaṃ vadaṃti..

Having heard and understood the religion, they had resolved to practising the life of self-restraint. Even being ordained by such resolve, they are not loyal to it. Consumed by the fire of passions and infatuated with the sensual delights, and overpowered by avidity of power, tasty food and easy life, they do not concentrate their mind on ecstacy, as enjoined by the Jina. They even speak ill of the preceptor.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 79

Some people, on hearing the well-propounded discipline and properly understanding it and taking up the vow, that is being alert in their practice, and with the intention to live the life of self-restraint become monks by renouncing the world. But on account of the recurrence of the rise of delusion, they return to the state of the rising of delusion. In that state, those monks do not practise the concentration, that is the restraint or one-pointedness of the senses and the mind, and start abusing the teacher. Here four reasons for such harsh words are shown:

  1. 'Not abiding by' means not rightly living in the path of concentration on accont of their being overwhelmed by greed for power and pleasure.
  2. 'Consumed' means burnt by the fire of passions.
  3. 'Infatuation with sensual delights' means attachment to the sensual objects.
  4. 'Avidity' means greed for tasty delicacies or greed for pleasurable objects.

6.80 sīlamaṃtā uvasaṃtā, saṃkhāe rīyamāṇā. asīlā aṇuvayamāṇā.

They ascribe immorality to the monks who are observers of vows, are calm and are progressing in the wise practice of the discipline.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 80

The characteristics of monk are: vows, calmness and wisdom. Though themselves not practising self-restraint, they vilify those as immoral, who are observers of vows, calm and practisers of the law with wisdom.

6.81 bitiyā maṃdassa bālayā.

This is the second folly of the evil-minded person.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 81

Such monk gives up his tranquillity. This is his first folly. He speaks ill of others who are exerting in the spiritual discipline. This is the second folly of the evil-minded person.

6.82 ṇiyaṭṭamāṇā vege āyāra-goyaramāikhaṃti ṇāṇabhaṭṭhā daṃsaṇa-lūsiṇo.

Though themselves fallen down from knowledge, defier of the faith, retiring from self-restraint, some monks propound the discipline in their own wavered way.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 82

Some people retiring from the self-restraint claim to expound the religious code of conduct. Their view is that 'the Lord has propounded a terrible code of conduct. In this age, such path is difficult to follow. Therefore, it is better to follow the middle path'. Thus propounding the doctrine, they fall down from knowledge that leads to tranquillity of passions. The conduct consisting in non-violence as propounded by the Lord is the right doctrine which they defy. As has been said in the Vṛtti, "Having fallen down on account of their wrong practice, they misguide others from the right path by inducing doubt in their mind."[9]

6.83 ṇamamāṇā ege jīvitaṃ vippariṇāmeṃti.

Even though bowing down with humbleness, some monks vitiate their life of self-restraint

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 83

Some monks though dedicated to the Tirthaṅkara or the preceptor vitiate their life of restraint, on account of their pride of fortunate status, tasty delicacies and merriments; that is, they lead a perverse life. These three self-glorifications lead him astray from monastic discipline.

6.84 puṭṭhovege ṇiyaṭṭaṃti, jīviyasseva kāraṇā.

Afflicted with their hardships, they give-up the life of self-restraint for the purpose of leading a luxurious life.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 84

Some monks run away from the discipline, when afflicted with hardships. For the sake of their intention to live a luxurious life, they deviate from the right path, that is, they revert to the householder's life.

6.85 ṇikkhaṃtaṃ pi tesiṃ dunnikkhaṃtaṃ bhavati.

Their renunciation of the householder's life turns to be a perverse renunciation.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 85

The purpose of renunciation of householder's life is perception and the realisation of the self. For the achievement of that purpose, the hardships also are to be tolerated. For those who are unable to endure the hardships, the renunciation becomes perverse.

6.86 bālavayaṇijā hu te narā, puṇo-puṇo jātiṃ pakkappeṃti.

Such people are also despised by the common people and are subject to born again and again.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 86

Those who do not fulfil their vow of renunciation are despised even by the laymen. People vilify them and say, "Look! even having accepted monkhood, they behave like the householder." "They have changed their garments but not their habits." Considered from the point of life-hereafter, they undergo life after life, thus prolonging the chain of transmigration. Clinging is the seed of karma which in turn is the seed of birth and death. Hence, the cycle of birth rolls on constantly.

6.87 ahe saṃbhavaṃtā viddāyamāṇā, ahamaṃsī viukkase.

Though standing low on the ladder of knowledge, they claim learning and exalt themselves in pride.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 87

There are many reasons for pride. Versatile learning alone is not the reason for the pride, but meagre knowledge too is a reason thereof. This has been showed here. While actually in a lower state of ascetic cadre or scriptural learning, they consider themselves to be learned and are puffed up.

6.88 udāsīṇe pharusaṃ vadaṃti.

They speak harsh words to the monks who are free from self-glorification.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 88

They speak harshly unto those even who are detached monks[10] free from self-glorification. This is shown by the Sūtra itself. In the Vṛtti also, the mode of harsh words has been explained. They speak ill of versatile monks who are tranquil and exert themselves to warn the disciples against their deviation from the discipline. They reprove them by asking them to introspect the good and bad acts of their own before giving instruction to others.[11]

6.89 paliyaṃ pagaṃthe aduvā pagaṃthe atahehiṃ.

Reminding them (i.e. the detached monks) of their past activities by using abusive words and putting false allegations, they (i.e. the perverse monks) speak harsh words against them.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 89

This is to be explained like the sūtras 6/42-43.

6.90 taṃ mehavī jāṇijjā dhammaṃ.

And so the intelligent monk should know the religion.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 90

Overpowered by the three-fold self-glorification, they indulge in the aforesaid activities. Therefore the intelligent monk should know true religion. Where there is self-glorification, there is no religion which can be comprehended only by relinquishing self-glorification.

6.91 ahammaṭṭhī tumaṃsi ṇāma bale, āraṃbhaṭṭhī, aṇuvayamāṇe, haṇamāṇe, ghāyamāṇe, haṇao yāvi samaṇujāṇamāṇe, ghore dhamme udīrie, uvehaiṇaṃ aṇāṇāe.

The preceptor should admonish the non-religious disciple in the following terms - 'you are ignorant, seeker of perverse doctrines, seeker of violence, supporter of those who indulge in violence, killer of creatures; you are instigating killing, approving of those who kill. The Lord has propounded a severe discipline which you are neglecting by transgressing it’.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 91

The monk overpowered by the threefold self-glorification is admonished by the preceptor in the following way: "You like unrighteousness, are ignoramus, you indulge in sinful acts,[12] you abate others, that is, you support those who indulge in sinful activities.[13] You are yourself injuring creatures, getting injury done by others and are approving of such acts.[14] The Lord has propounded a severe religion. You are neglecting it by transgression of the doctrine on account of being overpowered by the threefold self-glorification." 'Severe' means the nature of spiritual inhibition consisting in the ceasation of all types of inflow.[15] 'Propounded', means shown.[16] 'Transgressing[17] the law means' wayword conduct, not propounded by the Jina and his disciples.[18]

6.92 esa visaṇṇe vitadde viyāhite - tti bemi.

Such monk fc described as sinking in the quagmire of ignorance opposed to the discipline of inhibition. - Thus do I say.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 92

The monk who is non-vigilant and overpowered by the threefold self-glorification and negligent of the strict discipline is embogged[19] in the quagmire of the cause of influx of karma. He is also perverse, that is, opposed to the religion of inhibition.[20] - Thus do I say.

6.93 'kiṃaṇena bho! jaṇeṇa karissāmi'tti maṇṇamāṇā—evaṃ pege vaittā, mātaraṃ pitaraṃ hiccā, ṇātaoya pariggahaṃ.
vīrāyamāṇā samuṭṭhāe, avihiṃsā suvvayā daṃtā.

Addressing themselves, some people say, "O my soul! What have I to do with these relatives of mine?" - thus contemplating, they leave their parents, kith and kin and possessions. Courageously renouncing the world, they abstain from violence, observe the vows and are subdures of the senses and the mind.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 93

Some monks are initiated in the progressive stream of spirituality. These people, that is, parents and the host of relatives are not capable of protecting the person overpowered by birth, death, disease and grief. The dispassionate monks think thus: 'Oh! what should I do with such people?' Saying to themselves: 'we shall follow the discipline for the whole life like courageous lion by renouncing the parents, the relatives and the possessions'. With such courage they renounce the householder's life and practise non-violence, observing vows, that is, practice of penance. They are subduers, that is, conquerers of the senses and the mind.

6.94 ahege passa dīṇe uppaie paḍivayamāṇe.

On the contrary, look! some unfortunate monks who rise up and fall down from spirituality.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 94

Some monks, however, after rising up the ladder of self-restraint fall down under the influence of self-glorification - they renounce the world like lion but behave like jackles. 'Look at those poor monks, defeated by hardships'. In these two Sūtras (93,94) the fickleness of the stream of consciouness of such monks is explained.

6.95 vasaṭṭā kāyarā jaṇā lūsagā bhavaṃti.

Persons afflicted by sensuality and cowardice are the destroyers of the discipline.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 95

The reason of the fall is afflictedness and cowardliness. 'Afflicted' means toremented by sensual objects and passions. The afflicted is fourfold - afflicted by anger, pride, deceit and greed.[21] 'Cowardly' means unable to endure the hardships. The afflicted and the cowardly break their vows, that is, they destroy their vows.

6.96 ahamegesiṃ siloe pāvae bhavai, "samaṇāvibhaṃte samaṇavibbhaṃte. "

Therefore the reputation of some monks becomes bad and people call them "they are apostate ascetics."

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 96

Some, among the monks who have broken their vows, who have broken their enthusiasm, and who have broken their valour, earn notoriety, such as 'he is a apostate ascetic'.

6.97 pāsahege samaṇṇāgaehiṃ asamaṇṇāgae, ṇamamāṇehiṃ aṇamamāṇe, viratehiṃ avirate, daviehiṃ adavie.

Look! some, though living with righteous, humble, dispassionate, virtuous monks, are non-righteous, arrogant, passionate and sinful.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 97

There are four reasons for the laudable commendation of the initiated monk - (1) those who are endowed with righteousness, that is, wakeful to self-, restraint; (2) those who are humble, that is, dedicated to self-restraint;
(3) those who are dispassionate, that is, not tempted towards sensual objects;
(4) those who are virtuous, that is, conqueror of attachment and hatred.

Among them, some are overpowered by self-glorification, and are non-righteous, arrogant, passionate and sinful.

6.98 abbhisameccā paṃḍie mehāvī ṇiṭṭhiyaṭṭhe vīre āgameṇaṃ sayā parakka- mejjāsi. - tti bemi.

Realizing the bad consequences of apostasy, the learned, intelligent and valorous aspirant for liberation should always exert in the discipline, strictly according to the scripture. - Thus do I say.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 98

Having properly comprehended the bad results of apostasy, the wise monk should always exert himself in accordance with the scripture. 'Scripture' means the commandment or pondering over the commandment.[22]

"Here the monk is qualified by four qualities. Only such monk deserve to dwell in initiation who is learned, that is, knower of the truth, who is intelligent, that is, able to retain the law or observer of the monastic code, who has achieved the end, that is, who has no craving for sensual objects or who is intent on liberation,[23] and who is valiant, that is, energetic or patient.


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Jain Vishwa Bharati

Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

First Edition:2001

Courtesy :
Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
Radha Bazar Street, Kolkata-700 001 (INDIA)

Printed by:
Shree Vardhaman Press
Delhi (INDIA)

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anger
  2. Body
  3. Celibacy
  4. Concentration
  5. Cūrṇi
  6. Deceit
  7. Dhammo
  8. Discipline
  9. Greed
  10. Jina
  11. Karma
  12. Non-violence
  13. Pride
  14. Sarva
  15. Soul
  16. Sūtra
  17. Violence
  18. Vṛtti
  19. Ācārāṅga
  20. Āyāro
  21. śramaṇa
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