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Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 75-103 : Evils Of Sensuality And Self-Indulgent Persons

Published: 23.11.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015

2.75 tao se egayā roga-samuppāyā samuppajjaṃti.

Then sometimes, there arise diseases and ailments in him.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 75

Wealth is a means to the acquisition of sensual objects. A wealthy person enjoys them; then on that account, sometimes there may occur ailments. Diseases like fistula and nervous and muscular disorders may occur, according to the Cūrṇi.[1] According to the Vṛtti,[2] the occurrence of the diseases of debility, fistula etc. may take place. This is confirmed in the Caraka-saṃhitā too.

    2.76 jehiṃ vā saddhiṃ saṃvasati te vā ṇaṃ egayā ṇiyayā puvviṃ parivayaṃti, so vā te ṇiyage pacchā parivaejjā.

    Sometimes, his own family members reproach him or in turn he reproaches them.

    2.77 nālaṃ te tava tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā. tumaṃpi tesiṃ nālaṃ tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā.

    Neither do they rescue or offer him succour, nor can he rescue or offer them succour.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 76,77

    His associates, his own relations, sometimes obey him, when he is in good health and capable of doing his work, and follow him to the royal family, assembly or pleasure garden (for merriment). Afterwards, they neglect him when he falls ill and is out of work. He also in turn would neglect them afterwards.[3]

    Here 'rescue' stands for cure by medical treatment,[4] and 'succour' for relief from the disease.[5]

    Some people do no neglect even the sick (and the disabled), but are incapable of giving any medical relief or of curing the disease. You are also not able enough to give medical treatment to them or cure their malady.

      2.78 jāṇittu dukkhaṃ patteyaṃ sāyaṃ.

      Understand the pleasure and pains as earned by oneself.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 78

      The suffering by earning wealth or enjoying sensual objects is limited to the person himself. It attaches to the doer, and is not transferable to the persons for whom one exerts. Similarly, the pleasure is limited to the doer himself. Knowing this truth one should not be addicted to earning wealth and relishing sensual objects.

      2.79 bhogāmeva aṇusoyaṃti.

      Some people think of their sensual objects alone.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 79

      Some people realize that illness arises from relishing the sensual objects and that medical treatment and cure of ailments are impossible of being done by others and that pleasure and pain are confined to oneself. Even then they think about the ways of acquiring the objects of enjoyment. This is how delusion finds vent in him.

      2.80 ihamegesiṃ māṇavāṇaṃ.

      For some people wealth alone is the supreme end.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 80

      Some people are of the view that wealth (worldly prosperity) alone is the root of all human ends. For instance, according to Chanakya, religion and sensuality have wealth as its source.[6] They earn wealth being instigated by such ideology.

      2.81 iiviheṇa jāvi se tattha mattā bhavai - appā vā bahugā vā.

      He amasses wealth in small or large quantity through the triple effort of himself, others and both.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 81

      Such person succeeds in acquiring wealth and property, small or large, in triple way: the effort of himself, of others or of both, or by the exertion of mind, speech and body. As a result, he becomes a millionaire or even a multi-millionaire.

      2.82 se tattha gaḍhie ciṭṭhati, bhoyaṇāe.

      He gets ensnared in fortune for its enjoyment.

      2.83 tato se egayā viparisiṭṭhaṃ saṃbhūyaṃ mahovagaraṇaṃ bhavati.

      Then, at one time, his manifold savings grow into a large fortune.

      2.84 taṃ pi se egayā dāyāyā vibhayaṃti, adattahāro vā se avaharati, rāyāṇo vā se viluṃpaṃti, ṇassai vā se, viṇassai vā se, agāraḍāheṇa vā ḍajjhai.

      Then, at another time, his fortune is divided by relatives among themselves, or stolen by the thief, or confiscated by the king, or is lost, or destroyed, or burnt in housefire.

      2.85 iti se parassa aṭṭhāe kūrāiṃ kammāiṃ bāle pakuwamāṇe teṇa dukkheṇa muḍhe vippariyāsuvei.

      In this way the ignorant person engaged in cruel acts for the sake of others, is bewildered by his suffering and has a setback (i.e. loss of fortune).

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 82-85

      These are to be explained just like sūtras 66-69

      2.86 āsaṃ ca chaṃdaṃ ca vigiṃca dhīre.

      Resolute aspirant! give up your desires and hankerings.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 86

      'Resolute aspirant! to get rid of perversion, you shall have to give up desires and waywardness'.

      'Desire' means hankering after objects of enjoyment.

      'Hankering' means indulgence in sensual pleasure.[7] According to the Cūrṇi (p.72), hankering is to comply with the wishes of others. Some people unwillingly accede to the wishes of others and indulge in evil acts.

      2.87 tumaṃ ceva taṃ sallamāhaṭṭu.

      You yourself are the maker of thorn.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 87

      'Thorn' means karma and its results. Desire and hankering are also thorns.[8] From the thorn arises karma, from karma suffering. You are the creator of this thorn, so you alone can pluck it out.

      2.88 jeṇa siyā teṇa ṇo siyā.

      The same is the cause, and also not the cause.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 88

      The wealth or the things that usually produce enjoyment or joy, sometimes, may not produce them, because of the fruition of karma which is diverse and because the body is afflicted with ailments, and also because there are other obstacles too.

      2.89  iṇameva ṇāvabujjhaṃti, je jaṇā mohapāuḍā.

      The people are completely overwhelmed by delusion; so they do not understand this very nature of the irregularity of enjoyments.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 89

      This is the objective truth, but the people who are under the sway of delusion cannot understand that. 'Delusion' means attachment and hatred. It is of two kinds: delusion about faith and conduct.

      2.90  thībhi loe pawahie.

      The world is tormented by women.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 90

      Overwhelmed by desires and hankerings, oppressed by the thorn of lust, and not understanding the nature of irregularity of the objects in producing happiness, the world is tormented and dominated by women.

      2.91  te bho vayaṃti - eyāiṃ āyataṇāiṃ.

      O, they claim: women are the objects of enjoyment!

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 91

      The interjection 'O' is for calling the attention of the disciple. People tormented by women claim that women are the objects, that is, they are the vessels of enjoyment. The objects (of enjoyment) are of two kinds: good and bad. The good ones are knowledge and the like, the bad ones are the sensual objects and women. The person of perverse thought is ignorant of the essence of good objects; so he mistakes the non-objects for objects. Women are not in fact the objects of enjoyment.

      2.92  se dukkhāe mohāe mārāe ṇaragāe ṇaraga-tirikkhāe.

      Such perverse thought is for his suffering, delusion, death, hell, post-infernal sub-human life.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 92

      The mistaking of the non-object for the object is responsible for suffering, delusion, death, hell and post-infernal sub-human life.

      'Delusion' means non-discrimination between the worthy and the unworthy. One attached to the sensual objects does not distinguish between the two.

      A person excessively attached to the sensual objects, when unable to have access to coveted women, sometimes commits suicide too. Therefore, attachment to sensual objects leads to death.

      The person attached to the sensual objects is born in hell. From hell, he goes to the life of animals. In this way, he goes on transmigration, time and again, from hell to animal life and vice-versa.

      2.93  satataṃ mūḍhe dhammaṃ ṇābhijāṇai.

      The eternally deluded person does not recognize the true discipline.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 93

      Involved in the cycle of transmigration in various species of life, the eternally deluded person, being bewildered, cannot understand the discipline. Understanding of the discipline in the state of bewilderment is impossible. Without understanding the discipline, one cannot overcome bewilderment. There is now in human life some break in bewilderment, and so the injunction is made for practising self-awareness and vigilance in the Sutra that follows.

      2.94  udāhu vīre - appamādo mahāmohe.

      Thus proclaimed Lord Mahāvīra: Practise vigilance against the great delusion (of sensual gratification).

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 94

      The word viraḥ here stands for a Tirthankara of Lord Mahāvīra. He proclaimed the practice of vigilance against the great delusion.

      The 'great delusion' means the sexual desires for female, male or hermaphrodite, or desire to indulge in sex.

      2.95  alaṃ kusalassa pamāeṇaṃ.

      The prudent should not succumb to non-vigilance.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 95

      Where is the chance of non-vigilance for the prudent? 'Prudent means one who has restrained his attachment or one who has engaged himself in the practice of detachment. What is the scope of non-vigilance in a person who is free from attachment. The cause of non-vigilance is delusion. Only by getting rid of non-vigilance, a person can be free from attachment. Thus, in no case and at no time, desire for sensual objects arise in such person. One who is engaged in practising detachment may sometimes be confronted with the occasion of great delusion. The Lord's counsel to him is: "Thou art prudent, thou art keenly intent on achieving the state of detachment; what is the scope of non-vigilance in thee; thou shouldst always be vigilant."

      2.96  saṃti-maraṇaṃ saṃpehāe, bheuradhammaṃ saṃpehāe.

      Reflection on the tranquillity of passions and also on death, and further on the transitoriness of the body, leads to strengthening of the power of vigilance.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 96

      In the absence of the practice of vigilance, it is impossible to practise vigilance and avoid non-vigilance. Here the support for such practice is given, which has three elements: reflection on tranquillity, reflection on death, reflection on transitoriness.

      Tranquillity means liberation or unhindered spiritual effort; death stands for worldly life or obstructive mundane activities; transitoriness means impermanence of the body.

      Constant practice of the perception of tranquillity, death and transitoriness destroys non-vigilance and augments the power of vigilance.

      2.97  ṇālaṃ pāsa.

      Look at the incapacity (of the sensual objects to produce satisfaction).

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 97

      This Sūtra supports vigilance. You, an intelligent being, look at these sensual objects which even when enjoyed to one's heart's content are insufficient to give satisfaction, they intensify the dissatisfaction instead. It has been said: the fire is not quenched by wood, nor the ocean by rivers, nor the death by devouring the entire creation, nor women by any number of men.[9]

      2.98  alaṃ te eehiṃ.

      What then have you to do with them?

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 98

      These sensual objects stimulate the discontent, and therefore, they are futile. Of what use are they for you?

      2.99  eyaṃ pāsa muṇī! mahabbhayaṃ.

      Look, monk (seer)! at this deadly source of fear.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 99

      'Muni' literally meaning monk means 'seer'.

      O seer! wise as you are, look! this desire for sensual objects is the source of deadly fear. The hankering after the sensual object is ignited by coveted and delicate stimulants. It produces pain and so is a source of great fear.

      What sort of pain could be more severe than that which torments the person suffering from the malady of desires? Does not the person afflicted by sexual malady feel severe sensation of burning under the cool rays of the full moon?[10]

      There is some relationship between the swelling up of human emotion and the full moon. This is accepted by modern scientists too.

      2.100 naivaejja kamcanam.

      One should not inflict injury on any being.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 100

      There is concomitance between enjoyment and violence. There can lever be enjoyment without violence, though enjoyment may or may not iccompany violence.

      2.101 esa vīre pasaṃsie, je ṇa ṇivijjati ādāṇāe.

      The hero who does not feel dejected on not getting alms deserves praise.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 101

      A person without possession gets food etc. as offered by others as alms for the maintenance of his life. The offer of alms is dependent on the wish of the donor. The donor may be unwilling to offer or the material offered may not be as per rules. In both cases, offering does not materialize.[11] One who does not feel distressed in such circumstances is a praiseworthy hero.

      2.102 na me deti na kuppijja, thovam laddhum na khimsae. padisehio parinamijja.

      He should not be angry, thinking: 'he does not give me alms'. Nor should he condemn the donor on getting meagre quantity. He simply retires, when refused by the householder.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 102

      Here, the behaviour expected of a monk on the occasion of refusal of alms is laid down. The. monk should not feel angry, thinking - "he is not offering alms to me." Nor should he speak ill of a person who offers insufficient alms. If refused, he should leave the place[12] calmly and quietly.

      The three occasions that cause agitation in the mind are: lack of offering, meagre offering and refusal. The monk who maintains tranquillity under such occasions is the hero. The hero alone is capable of an equanimous conduct.

      2.103 eyaṃ moṇaṃ samaṇuvāsejjāsi. - tti bemi.

      One should practise such wisdom. - Thus do I say.

      You should follow meticulously the aforesaid monastic norms. The person who knows (munai in Prakrit means 'knows') is a monk. The state of knowing is monkhood, which is thus identical with knowledge and self-restraint.


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      Jain Vishwa Bharati

      Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

      ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

      First Edition:2001

      Courtesy :
      Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
      Radha Bazar Street, Kolkata-700 001 (INDIA)

      Printed by:
      Shree Vardhaman Press
      Delhi (INDIA)

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      Page glossary
      Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
      1. Body
      2. Chanakya
      3. Cūrṇi
      4. Discipline
      5. Fear
      6. Karma
      7. Kriyā
      8. Mahāvīra
      9. Prakrit
      10. Sutra
      11. Sūtra
      12. Tirthankara
      13. Violence
      14. Vṛtti
      15. Ācārāṅga
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