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Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 145-149 : Comparison Of Others With The Self

Published: 04.11.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015

1.145 pahū ejjassa dugaṃchaṇāe.

A non-violent person is capable of guarding himself against committing violence to air-bodied beings.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 145

Air pervades wherever living beings are in action. The question, therefore, naturally arises whether it is possible to abstain from injury to air-bodied beings. In reply, the Sūtra says that it is possible. One can avoid doing injury to them.

Air: This is called ejaḥ in Sanskrit because it flows (ejati).

Guarding against committing violence: It means restraint, desisting from action; avoidance; turning back; escape. These are all synonyms.

1.146 āyaṃkadaṃsῑ ahiyaṃ tti naccā.

Only the person who finds violence as fearful and harmful can desist from it.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 146

This is a supporting Sūtra. The perception of fear and knowledge of harm are the supports to desisting from violence.

Fear: It produces physical and mental pain. One who perceives fear in acts of violence does easily refrain from the latter.

The apparent good in the act of violence ultimately turns evil. The harmful behaviour is productive of harmful result. Such comprehension easily leads one to abstain from the acts of violence.

1.147 je ajjhatthaṃ jāṇai, se bahiyā jāṇai. je bahiyā jāṇai, se ajjhatthaṃ jāṇai.

One who knows the internal knows the external and one who knows the external knows the internal.[1]

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 147

This is also a supporting Sūtra. The word 'internal' has different connotations in different contexts.

  1. The internal is what is concerned with the self.
  2. The internal is what is beyond the mind.
  3. The internal is the consciousness which is a common factor running through body, speech and mind of all living beings, mobile or immobile.
  4. The internal is the sensation of pleasure and pain.
  5. The internal is also the consciousness of the Jina.

Here the word 'internal' stands for the sensation of pleasure and pain. One who knows' the internal knows the external i.e., all living beings other than himself. The idea is that as there is the feeling of pleasure and pain with respect to the desirable and the undesirable in oneself, so there is similar feeling in the living beings of the external world. The Sūtra  also gives the converse: one who knows the external knows the internal.

1.148 eyaṃ tulamaṇṇesiṃ. Try to investigate this comparison.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 148

Now look at the comparison explained in the preceding Sūtra. As my suffering is not desirable to me, so the sufferings of others are not desirable to them. The understanding of this comparison with the self is a support to abstinence from violence.[2]

1.149 iha saṃtigayā daviyā, ṇāvakaṃkhaṃti vῑjiuṃ.[3]

The competents who have achieved tranquillity do not take to fanning.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 149

Here the Sūtra  explains the act of injury to the air-bodied beings and abstinence from it by pointing out the example of fanning. The monks initiated in the discipline of the Jina do not take to fanning. The reason is twofold: they have attained tranquillity and they have also the competence to practise self-restraint.

Tranquillity: The calming down of the passions.

Competent to practise self-restriant: Free from lust and hatred or free from attachment to body. It also means monks with their heart melted by compassion. Such persons are tranquil even in hot summer. Therefore they do not need to get tranquillity by fanning which involves injury to air-bodied beings.


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Jain Vishwa Bharati

Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

First Edition:2001

Courtesy :
Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
Radha Bazar Street, Kolkata-700 001 (INDIA)

Printed by:
Shree Vardhaman Press
Delhi (INDIA)

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Body
  2. Consciousness
  3. Discipline
  4. Fear
  5. Jina
  6. Non-violence
  7. Sanskrit
  8. Soul
  9. Sūtra
  10. Violence
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