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Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 30-39 : The Dhūta Of The Abandonment Of Relatives

Published: 01.04.2011
Updated: 02.07.2015

6.30 āturaṃ loyamāyāe, caittā puvvasaṃjogaṃ hiccā[1] uvasaṃ am vasittā baṃbhacerammi vasu vā aṇuvasu vā jāṇitu dhammaṃ ahā-tahā, ahege tamacāi kusīlā.

Though pondering over the close relations striken with grief, relinquishing their past ties, practising tranquillity, observing celibacy, properly understanding the perfect and imperfect righteousness, there are some monks deficient in morality, who are unable to practise monkhood.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 30

In the first section, the shaking off related to the abandonment of one's own relatives has been described. Now, the shaking off concerned with the abandonment of the desirable objects is being explained. While exerting (for the spiritual end), he looks towards, that is, comprehends through knowledge, his parents and others who are bewailing on account of their separation from him. He, however, gives up his previous association with them inspite of his knowledge about their conditions. And, thus, he cultivates[2] tranquillity, that is, self-restraint.[3] He dwells[4] in brahmacarya, that is good conduct at the place of his teacher. He properly understands the excellent discipline of complete self-restraint devoid of attachment or imperfect self-restraint accompanied with attachment.[5] On the other hand, some delinquent monks are not able to practise[6] the discipline, though dwelling in it for a short or a long period.

6.31 vatthaṃ paḍiggahaṃ kaṃbalaṃ pāyapuṃchaṇaṃ viusijjā.

They give up their clothing, pot, blanket and whisk.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 31

Among them, some monks continue to have monastic insignia. Some again give up the insignia too. Some among them become a lay disciple (observing the partial conduct) by giving up the clothing bowl, blanket and whisk; some again become a faith-follower endowed with right view, some again become a non-follower householder or even a heretic.

6.32 aṇupuvveṇa aṇahiyāsemāṇā parīsahe durahiyāsae.

The hardships, gradually not properly endured, ultimately become unbearable.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 32

'Gradually' means in order. Those who do not tolerate the hardships in order, they become unbearable to him. For instance, if a man sees a desirable object, he should be indifferent towards that, he should not try to see that again. This is the first step related to tolerance or agreeable hardship. When that object has passed, one should not recall the memory of it. This is the second step. In this way, the hardship becomes easily tolerable. Those who do not practise this way develop attachment on seeing the object, pursue it and recollect, when the object has passed away. In their case, the hardship is unbearable. The hardships caused by the sensual objects in the case of the other sense-organs are also to be understood in the similar way. This is applicable also in the case of hardships caused by disagreeable objects.[7]

6.33 kāme mamayamāṇassa iyāṇiṃ vā muhutte vā aparimāṇāe bhede.

Such monk relinquishes his monkhood, overpowered by his clinging to desires. He may meet death at the very moment or intra-hour or at any time without any criteria of age, status etc.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 33

The monk who falls prey to the sensual.objects develops sense of 'mine'-ness with regard to them. About this, the Sūtra says that the monk who relinquishes the monastic life for the enjoyment of the sensual objects meets death,[8] at that very moment, or sometime later at any moment, irrespective of his status, age etc.[9]

6.34 evaṃ se aṃtarāiehiṃ kāmehiṃ ākevaliehiṃ avitiṇṇā cee.

In this way, the monk cannot get rid of the obstructive sensual desires, attended by their antithesis.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 34

The sensual objects are not uninterrupted, that is, they are fraught with obstacles. They are not self-sufficient, that is, they are incomplete, attended by antithesis. As such,- they are difficult to overcome. They can be overcome only by detachment. They can never be overcome through their enjoyment.[10]

6.35 ahege dhamma mādāya āyāṇappabhiiṃ supaṇihie care.

Some ordained in monkhood remain detached with full attention from clothing, pot etc. in the practice of discipline.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 35

The Sūtras 30-34 are concerned with invigilance with respect to the discipline. Now this Sūtra starts with vigilance.[11] Some monk, accepting the religious outfit such as clothing, pot etc., observe the discipline with complete devotion. There are two life-styles of the observance of the discipline for the well-disciplined monk: one with clothing and the other without clothing. The next five Sūtras deal with the conduct of the monk who observes discipline with regard to clothing. In the Sūtras 40-51 the "conduct of the monk without clothing is described.

'Devotion' means purity. The monk who is unattached to the clothing[12] and other outfits, is absolutely pure irrespective of the outfit. It is said in the Sthānāṅga that purity is of the mind, speech, body and outfit.[13]

6.36 apalīyamāṇe daḍhe.

He is detached and firm in the practice of discipline.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 36

The well-behaved monk is unattached. He is not attached to the outfit such as clothing etc. He is also unshakable.[14] It has been said in the Sthānāṅga that some monk have love for the religion, while some others have strong will to practise it. The monk with love for religion may not always be able to practice it. The monk with strong will is unshakable, on account of his patience and strong bone-joints, can bear the burden of the discipline like a mighty bull.

6.37 savvaṃ gehiṃ[15] pariṇṇāya, esa paṇae mahāmuṇī.

The monk who, subduing all lust,[16] is dedicated to the religion becomes a great sage.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 37

The monk who dwells subduing all lust, that is, attachment to the sensual objects and dedicated to the discipline and detachment, becomes a great sage. In the opinion of the Cūrṇi, such monk comprehends the vast world and becomes chief among the sages.[16]

6.38 aiacca savvato saṃgaṃ "ṇa mahaṃ atthitti iti egohamaṃsi."

Renuouncing attachment in all respects, he should contemplate—‘I have none, so I am alone’.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 38

In order to get rid of all karma, the contemplation of solitariness is extremely useful. Attachment means lust.[17] 'In all respects' means everywhere, complete and always. Transcending all attachment, one should reflect: 'as I have none, I am alone'. Non-solitariness is an imaginary product of attachment, and, therefore, that is not true. Oneness (the solitary state) is a reality, and contemplation of this truth leads to the shaking off of karma. In the Sūtrakrtāṅga, it has been asserted that the realisation of the solitary state is emancipation.[18] One should long for the solitary state. Such state is liberation. One should see that it is not untrue. It is indeed liberation, truth and supreme too. A monk in such state is freed from anger, devoted to truth and a genuine ascetic.

6.39 jayamāṇe ettha virate aṇagāre savvao muṃḍe rīyaṃte.

The monk exerting in self-restraint is detached, renouncer of house, shunning all passions in every respect and devoid of any fixed abode.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 39

Striving for the development of the thought 'I am alone' through contemplation of loneliness, he practises self-restraint. Indifferent to worldly attachments, i.e., not taking any interest in sensual desires, he wanders, becoming shaven head,[19] i.e., completely shorn of all passions, without any fixed abode.


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Jain Vishwa Bharati

Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

First Edition:2001

Courtesy :
Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
Radha Bazar Street, Kolkata-700 001 (INDIA)

Printed by:
Shree Vardhaman Press
Delhi (INDIA)

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anger
  2. Body
  3. Brahmacarya
  4. Celibacy
  5. Conceit
  6. Contemplation
  7. Cūrṇi
  8. Deceit
  9. Dhamma
  10. Discipline
  11. Karma
  12. Sūtra
  13. Tolerance
  14. Vṛtti
  15. Ācārāṅga
  16. Āyāro
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