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Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 101-117 : Injury To The Plant-World

Published: 26.10.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015

1.101 jamiṇaṃ virūvarūveiṃ satthehiṃ vaṇassai-kamma-samāraṃ bheṇaṃ vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhamāṇe aṇṇe vaṇegarūve pāṇe vihiṃ sati.

But they indulge in violent actions to the plant-world with various weapons, which involve destruction of various other classes of beings.

 Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra  101

In the Niryukti the weapons injurious to the plant-world are enumerated thus:

  1. Scissors, axe, sickle-like heavy knife, spade, chisel, hatchet.
  2. Hand, feet, mouth etc.
  3. Homogeneous weapons - weapons made of wood such as stick.
  4. Heterogeneous weapons - weapons made of materials other than wood, e.g., stone, fire etc.
  5. Weapons made of a mixture of wood and other than wood, for instance, are which is made of wood and steel, and the like.
  6. Psychic weapon - non-restraint.

1.102 tattha khalu hhagavayā pariṇṇā paveditā.

On this subject the Lord has propounded the principle of comprehension and abandonment.

1.103 imassa ceva jῑviyassa,




Longing for survival; praise, reverence and adoration; life and death, emancipation, and elimination of physical and mental suffering.

1.104 se sayameva vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhai, aṇṇehiṃ vā vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhāvei, aṇṇe vā vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhamāṇe samaṇujāṇai.

He himself indulges in killing the plant-world, or instigates others to do so, or he approves of such killings by others.

1.105 taṃ se ahiyāe, taṃ se abehῑe.

Such violence is for his harm, is for his non-enlightenment.

1.106 se taṃ saṃbujjhamāṇe, āyāṇῑyaṃ samuṭṭhāe.

He (the ascetic) comprehends the result of violence and applies himself to the practice of self-restraint.

1.107  soccā bhagavao aṇagārāṇaṃ vā aṃtie ihemegesiṃ nayaṃ bhavati - esa khalu gaṃthe, esa khalu mohe, esa khalu māre, esa khalu ṇirae.

Hearing from the Jina or other ascetics, some people come to know: such violence is indeed a knot, is delusion, is death, is hell.

1.108  iccetthaṃ gaḍhie he.

Nevertheless, the people entrapped in pursuit of pleasure (indulge in violence to the plant-world).

1.109  jamiṇaṃ virūvarūvehiṃ satthehiṃ vaṇassai-kamma-samāraṃbheṇaṃ vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhemāṇe aṇṇe vaṇegarūve pāṇe vihiṃsati.

They indulge in violent actions to the plant-world with various weapons which involve destruction of various other classes of beings.

1.110  se bemi - appege aṃdhamabbhe, appege aṃdhamacche.

Thus I say: somebody pierces and cuts the blind (plant-world which has the feeling of intense pain like that of the human beings, born blind, deaf, dumb, lame and deficient in other limbs).

1.111 appege pāyamabbhe, appege pāy am acche.

Some people pierce and cut foot, ankle, etc. (see s ūtra  29 for all the thirty-two limbs of the body).

1.112  appage saṃpamārae, appege uddavae.

Sometimes a person is beaten to a state of unconsciousness and sometimes tortured to death.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 102-112

See Sūtra s 20-30.

1.113  se bemi - imaṃpi jāidhammayaṃ, eyampi jāidhammayaṃ. imaṃpi buḍḍhidhammayaṃ, eyaṃpi buḍḍhidhammayaṃ. imaṃpi cittamaṃtayaṃ, eyaṃpi cittamaṃtayaṃ. imaṃpi chinnaṃ milāti, eyaṃpi chinnaṃ milāti. imaṃpi āhāragaṃ, eyaṃpi āhāragaṃ. imaṃpi aṇiccayaṃ, eyaṃpi aṇiccayaṃ. imaṃpi asāsayaṃ, eyaṃpi asāsayaṃ. imaṃpi cayāvacaiyaṃ, eyaṃpi cayāvacaiyaṃ. imaṃpi vipariṇāmadhammayaṃ, eyaṃpi vipariṇāmadha- mmayaṃ.

Thus I say:

This (human body) is subject to birth, so too the plant body.
This (human body) is subject to growth, so too the plant body.
This (human body) is endowed with consciousness, so too the plant body.
This (human body) withers, so too the plant body.
This (human body) needs nutrition, so too the plant body.
This (human body) is impermanent, so too the plant body.
This (human body) is non-eternal, so too the plant body.
This (human body) is subject to metabolism, so too the plant body.
This (human body) is subject to change, so too the plant body.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra  113

Among the immobile beings, the plant-bodied beings have manifest conscious-ness. In the earth-bodied beings and the like, the consciousness is not as manifest as in the plant. This is why the former has not been likened to the human body. The comparison of the human body with plant body is possible in all respects. The characteristics of birth, growth, nutrition, metabolism, death, disease, the states of childhood, adulthood and the like and consciousness and the like are the most obvious items of description.

  1. As the human body is subject to birth, so the plant-body exhibits signs of birth.
  2. As the human body grows up, so does the plant-body.
  3. As the human body is endowed with consciousness and is possessed of the power of cognition, so is the plant-body. The plants like emblica, officinalis, cassiatora etc. exhibit slumber and waking. On this topic one can find the views of modern scientists in the book "Secret Life of Plants."[1]
  4. As the limbs of human body, when severed, gradually decay and die, so the branches, flowers, leaves, etc. of the tree, when torn, wither up. The aura around the leaves that are severed from the main body fades away and on complete fading, it dies.
  5. As the human body draws nutrition, so the plant body draws mineral, water etc. The digestion in both cases depends on sunlight.
  6. As the human body is impermanent, that is subject to growth and decay, so is the plant-body.
  7. As the human body is non-eternal, i.e., subject to death, so is the plant-body.
  8. As there is formation and disintegration of billions of cells every moment in the human body, there is formation of cells and their disintegration in the plant-body too.
  9. As the human body is subject to change, so is the plant-body. Change comprises the stages beginning from fertilisation and the like and the post-natal stages of childhood etc., or arising of some ailments or acquisition of special lustre, strength, etc., through special medicine (elixir), oil etc.

The Cūrṇi (p.35) mentions the different modifications like dream, longing during pregnancy, diseases etc. that are to be understood here. The Vṛtti does not mention anything about dreams in the plants. As regards longing during pregnancy it is mentioned that flowers and fruits grow when the longing is fulfilled.[2] The bumper growth of crops is remarkable in modern times on account of the supply of fertilisers and the like to satisfy their longings. Further research is necessary on the subject of dream and longings in plant life.

    1.114 ettha satthaṃ samāraṃbhamāṇassa iccete āraṃbhā apariṇṇāyā bhavaṃti.

    The person thus indulging in acts of violence does neither comprehend, nor abandon them.

    1.115 ettha satthaṃ samāraṃbhamāṇassa iccete āraṃbhā pariṇṇāyā bhavaṃti.

    The person not indulging in acts of violence is capable of comprehending and abandoning them.

    1.116 ta pariṇṇāya mehāvῑ ṇeva sayaṃ vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhejjā, ṇevaṇṇehiṃ vaṇassai-satthaṃ samāraṃbhāvejjā, ṇevaṇṇe vaṇassai-satthaṃ samārambhate samaṇujāṇejjā.

    Comprehending this, an intelligent ascetic should not indulge in violence to the plant-world, nor should he instigate others to do so, nor should he approve of such violence committed by others.

    1.117 jassete vaṇassai-sattha-samāraṃbhā pariṇṇāyā bhavaṃti, se hu muṇῑ pariṇṇāya-kamme. - tti bemi.

    The ascetic who comprehends and abandons these acts of violence to the plant-world is indeed an ascetic who has fully comprehended and abandoned all acts of violence. Thus do I say.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 114-117

    See Sūtras 31-34.


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    Jain Vishwa Bharati

    Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

    ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

    First Edition:2001

    Courtesy :
    Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
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    Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
    1. Aura
    2. Body
    3. Consciousness
    4. Cūrṇi
    5. Jina
    6. Niryukti
    7. Sūtra
    8. Violence
    9. Vṛtti
    10. Ācārāṅga
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