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Tattvartha Sutra: 01.34-35

Published: 26.03.2017

01.34 Naigamsangrahvyavahārrjusutrashabdā Nayā


केनैगमसङ्ग्रहव्यवहारर्जूसूत्रशब्दा नया: ।


  नैगम, संग्रह, व्यवहार, ऋजुसूत्र और शब्द ये पांच नय है।

01.35 Adyashabdou Dwitribhedau


आद्यशब्दौ द्वित्रिभेदौ । 1/35


आद्य अर्थात प्रथम नैगम नय के दो और शब्द नय के तीन भेद है।                   


There are five viewpoints, viz. common view, linear view, practical view, verbal view and literal view. The first has two sub-types and the last verbal has three.

The mention was made of Naya as a point of view in sutra 6. These sutras deal with various points of view. There are many perspectives from which an object or a situation can be viewed. As such, there could be as many Nayas as the number of perspectives. All of them can be broadly classified in two main categories of Nishchay Naya meaning the absolute point of view and Vyavahār Naya meaning the practical point of view. When an object is described in its true intrinsic form, it is called Nishchay Naya. From that point of view, for instance, the soul can be described as spotlessly pure and as imbibed with infinite capabilities. From the worldly viewpoint, however, it can be described as smeared with Karma. That is called Vyavahār Naya.

Nayas can also be divided in two categories of Dravyārthik Naya and Paryāyārthik Naya. When one takes into consideration the substantia! aspects and ignores the differences, it is called Dravyārthik Naya. Dravya denotes a substance. As such, to call the soul as pure consciousness is Dravyārthik or the substantial point of view. When, however, one emphasizes the differences and ignores the substantial part, it is Paryāyārthik Naya. Paryāy denotes the changing states. To describe a soul as a human being is Paryāyārthik, because it indicates the state of soul, which is different from a heavenly or other state of existence. If such differing states can be translated as modes, this viewpoint can also be called the modal point of view.

There are various traditions about classifying Nayas. Sutra 34 classifies them in five categories of common view, generic view, practical view, linear (applicable at present) view and verbal view. Sutra 35 states that there are two sub-categories of common view and three of verbal view. Sub-categories of common view are, however, not seen in popular usage. Those of verbal view are specified as linear, derivative and literal. As such, there are following seven sub-categories of Nayas.

  1. Naigam: This denotes generally acceptable view irrespective of the quality, time.or space. For instance, one sees a lake and states that it contains much water without specifying its quality, origin, since when it has been there or how long it is likely to continue.
  2. Sangrah: This denotes a generic approach. For instance, on seeing the same lake one would say 'Great American lake'. This statement classifies the lakes as American, Asian, African etc. but it does not specify whether it is Michigan or some other lake. The statement would be applicable to any lake in America.
  3. Vyavahār: This denotes the practical view. For instance, on seeing the lake one would specify its water as deep or shallow, as sweet or salty and so on as required for practical purposes.
    These three categories can be termed as belonging to Dravyārthik viewpoint. Now let us consider those of Paryāyārthik viewpoint
  4. Rjusuīra: This denotes what is applicable at present. For instance, one may say that the water of Michigan is supplied to Chicago. That is true, but it does not specify that the water is also supplied to the northern and western suburbs, nor does it say what would happen in case of shortage of water in the lake.
  5. Shabda: This denotes the verbal view that pertains to a particular time. For instance, the history may mention that there was the city of Pompeii in Italy. Pompeii actually exists even at present; but the history refers to the city, as it existed before the volcanic eruption and not to the present one. As such, reference to Pompeii pertains to the past tense
  6. Samabhiroodh: This denotes the view based on derivation. For instance, the name Johnson could be interpreted as being a son of John.
  7. Evambhoot: This denotes a view, which is literally true at the time of expression. For instance, to contend "hat one should be considered a President only when he is presiding over a meeting or when he is actually discharging the duties of Presidency is Evambhoot Naya.

Title: Tattvartha Sutra
Manu Doshi
Manu Doshi
Federation of Jain Associations in North America & Shrut Ratnakar
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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Chicago
  2. Consciousness
  3. Dravya
  4. Evambhoot
  5. Karma
  6. Naya
  7. Nayas
  8. Sanskrit
  9. Soul
  10. Space
  11. Sutra
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