Tattvartha Sutra: 09.09

Published: 22.07.2017
Updated: 22.07.2017

09.09 Kshutpipāsāsheetoshnadanshmashaknāgnyār-atistridiaryānishadyāshaiyya"kroshvadhyāchanā'lābhrogtrn-sparshamalsatkārpuraskārprajnā'jnānādarshanāni




क्षुधा, पिपासा, शीत, उष्ण,दंश मशक,नग्नता,रति, स्त्री,चर्या, निषद्या,शय्या,आक्रोश,वध,याचना, अलाभ,रोग, त्रिणस्पर्श,मल, सत्कार पुरुष्कार,प्रज्ञा, अज्ञान और दर्शन 22 परिषह  है।



Hunger, thirst, cold, heat, insect-bite, unclad state, despise, seduction, moving about, steady posture, rough bed, reproach, injury, going for alms, facing disadvantage, disease, thorny grass, dirtiness, honor or award, intelligence, nescience and failure to comprehend are the main hardships.

There could be innumerable types of Parishah (hardships), which may have to be faced. This sutra enumerates twenty-two of them, which need to be faced particularly in the monastic life. That is deemed practicable at the sixth stage of spiritual elevation. In that stage one is expected to bear the hardships as a part of spiritual pursuit.

Hardships do arise in life. The question is, 'Why need they be borne instead of removing the same?' It should be remembered that we are at present considering the factors that can prevent the acquisition of Karma. Averting violence to the possible extent is a 'must* in that respect. For that purpose one needs to bear the hardships that he comes across. This sutra mentions those, which need to be borne particularly by the monastic order, though some of them also relate to the lay order. Let us consider them one by one.

  1. Kshudhā Parishah: Kshudhā means feeling hungry. Everyone needs to eat. But at times a monk may not get in alms the insentient food that he can eat. In worldly life too, it can happen that one may not be able to obtain food when he needs it. As such, he may be required to go without eating. This can, of course, not be carried on indefinitely. Hopefully, he can get something to eat within a day or two. In case, however, one does not get the food that he can take, he should be willing to go without it even at the cost of his life.
  2. Pipāsā Parishah: Pīpāsā denotes thirst for water. When one is thirsty, he needs to take water. Sometimes, however, one may be in a situation, where it is not possible to get the water that he can take. In that case, he should be willing to remain without it and bear the thirst.
  3. &
  4. Sheet and Ushna Parishahs: Sheet means cold and Ushna means hot. One should bear the weather even if it is hot or cold. The situation would be particularly tough for monks and nuns, because they have to walk barefooted. One should, however, be willing to bear that with patience.´
  5. Danshmashak Parishah: Danshamshak means insect bite. One may have to live or camp at a place, where there may be many mosquitoes, gnats, etc. A monk is not supposed to use the mosquito net and is therefore required to face the insect bite. A layman can use a mosquito net or have screens across the windows. But if that is not possible, a spiritual aspirant should be willing to bear the bites.
  6. Nāgnya Parishah: Nāgnya denotes unclad state. This Parishah is therefore applicable to Digambar monks, who remain unclad. They have to remain more exposed to heat and cold. Moreover, their unclad state may be subject to criticism, contempt, disdain, etc. They should be willing to bear the same.
  7. Arati Parishah: Arati stands for disaffection, despise etc. The spiritual aspirant may come across various problems, obstacles and obstructions. He should, however, not be disaffected by such factors and continue his spiritual pursuit cheerfully and enthusiastically.
  8. Stri Parishah: Stri denotes a female, but in the present context it should be taken in the sense of the opposite sex. The attraction of male for female and of female for male is natural and that may result in temptation, seduction etc. A spiritual aspirant should therefore stay away from the opposite sex.
  9. Charyā Parishah: Charyā usually means life style, but here it is used in the sense of moving about from place to place. Staying at one place can lead to attachment for the place or the persons residing there. The monks and nuns have to stay away from all types of attachment. As such, they are required to move about on foot from place to place. They may get tired or may come across other hardships, but they should patiently bear the same.
  10. Nishadyā Parishah: Nishad means to sit steady. The monastic as well as the lay spiritual aspirants may need to assume some posture for the sake of concentration. One may feel tired of the assumed posture, his feet or other limbs may start aching or he may experience numbness. The spiritual aspirant should ignore that and continue the posture as long as required.
  11. Shayyā Parishah: Shayyā means bed, but here it is used in the sense of rough or hard bed. A spiritual aspirant normally goes in for a hard bed. If one is used to soft bedding, it may be tough for him to sleep on a hard bed. Moreover, he may also have to sleep on the floor at times. He may feel inconvenienced while sleeping on such beds, but he should willingly bear it.
  12. Akrosh Parishah: Akrosh means wrath, reproach, etc. A spiritual aspirant may come across people, who may behave wrongly and may even utter harsh words. But he should not be affected thereby and peacefully stay in his pursuit.
  13. Vadh Parishah: Vadh generally means killing. But here it is used in the sense of hurting, etc. It may happen that someone may be so mad at a spiritual aspirant that he may indulge in beating or otherwise hurting him. Even if that happens without any reason, the spiritual aspirant should remain calm and bear it peacefully.
  14. Yachanā Parishah: Yāchanā denotes begging. One belonging to the monastic order has to go for alms for all his requirements inclusive of food and water. Begging may be easy for beggars, but it is hard for others. That may even be humiliating. To adopt begging as a part of monastic code, in spite of its humiliating aspect, is called Yāchanā Parishah.
  15. Alābh Parishah: Alābh means disadvantage. As stated above it is not easy to beg and it may become particularly hurtful, if the person concerned refuses to offer what is begged for. It may also happen that such a person may use foul language. But a spiritual aspirant need not be affected thereby. He should carry on without the thing or approach someone else, who would offer it.
  16. Rog Parishah: Rog means disease. Everyone is prone to contact disease. In monastic life one has to depend upon the food supplied by others. As such, it may happen that one obtains some food, which is not conducive to health. Thereby he may get some disease, which can cause pain. In such eventualities he can take innocent medication. But in case, he is not cured thereby or does not get medication, he should patiently bear the pain without being perturbed. This is applicable to the laymen as well.
  17. Trnsparsha Parishah: Trnsparsha means contact of straw. In the monastic life, one has to use simple bed provided to him. He may also get a bed of straw or may be required to sleep on the straw itself. Some part of the straw can be pointed and may hurt. The spiritual aspirant should accept the same as part of his life and patiently bear the discomfort.
  18. Mai Parishah: Mai denotes dirtiness. In monastic life, one is not supposed to take bath. There are two reasons. In that life one has not to undertake any activity, which can make the body unclean. Secondly, one has to use the minimum amount of water so as to avoid unnecessary violence to aquatic and other subtle beings. While moving from place to place, however, one is prone to get dirty. Similarly, he may be required to carry on with more or less unclean clothes. He should not feel disgusted for the unclean body or clothes and should cheerfully lead the life of spiritual pursuit.
  19. Satkār-Puraskār Parīshah: Satkar means respect and Puraskār means award. A monk may be held in high esteem for his knowledge and for leading the hard life or a layman may be respected for his knowledge etc. That should not be of any concern to the spiritual aspirant. If one is elated or feels flattered thereby, his spiritual pursuit would be endangered; it may be hard for him to maintain the humility needed in his pursuit. A spiritual aspirant should take such occasions of respect as the passing gestures and undergo the same.
  20. Prajnā Parishah: Prajnā means intelligence, wisdom, etc. Such attributes of a spiritual aspirant may come to the limelight and he might be held in reverence for that. The aspirant should, however, take that as an outcome of his wholesome Karma and should not indulge in any sense of the superiority.
  21. Ajnān Parishah: Ajnān means nescience. The main purpose of spiritual pursuit is to be enlightened. For that purpose one needs to gain knowledge. It may, however, happen that one may find it hard to make out or to remember in spite of all possible efforts. But he need not be discouraged thereby. He should take it as a consequence of knowledge-obscuring Karma and try to overcome the same by persevering in his endeavor.
  22. Adarshan Parishah: Darshan means right perception or enlightenment and Adarshan denotes the absence thereof. One may endeavor to gain the right perception, but he may fail to get the same. In that case, he may be disheartened. Instead of being overcome by the failure, one needs to patiently pursue his objective with the hope that the enlightenment would arise in due course.
Title: Tattvartha Sutra
Manu Doshi
Manu Doshi
Federation of Jain Associations in North America & Shrut Ratnakar
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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Arati
  2. Body
  3. Concentration
  4. Darshan
  5. Digambar
  6. Karma
  7. Sanskrit
  8. Sutra
  9. Violence
  10. दर्शन
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