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Tattvartha Sutra: 09.18

Published: 27.07.2017

09.18 Ekādayo Bhājyā Yugpadaikonvinshateh

Audio:
Sanskrit:

समयिकच्छेदोपस्थाप्यपरिहारविशुद्धिसूक्ष्मसम्पराययथाख्यातानि चारित्रम् ।

Hindi:

सामायिक, छेदोपस्थापन, परिहार,विशुद्धि, सूक्ष्मसम्पराय और यथाख्यात - ये पांच प्रकार के चारित्र है।

09.18

English:

Charitra consists of Sāmāyik, Chhedopasthāpan, Parihārvishuddhi, Sookshmasamparāy and Yathākhyāt.

The next important factor in prevention of Karma is Charitra. It means putting the precepts into practice. As such, the endeavor to develop purity is Charitra. The term is, however, used here in the context of monastic life. Since observance of equanimity is the essence of monastic life, Charitra is considered of the following five types depending upon the degree of such observance

 
  1. Sāmāyik: Sam means equanimity and Āy means incoming. As such, the term literally means gaining of equanimity. Sāmāyik is therefore an exercise in cultivating equanimity. īn Jain community, many people are seen regularly performing Sāmāyik. But their emphasis rests on the ritual part, while the real purpose of gaining equanimity is overlooked. Actually, the importance of the practice should be judged from the peace and tranquility that can be brought in life and not from the number of Sāmāyiks performed. The monks and nuns are supposed to stay in equanimity. As such, the first initiation or adopting the same for a period of trial is termed as Sāmāyik. It is popularly known as Kāchi Dikshā.
  2. Chhedopasthāpan: After adopting the initial initiation when one realizes that he is in a position to observe equanimity and maintain peace of mind, he is initiated for the life. In other words, he is confirmed in the monastic order. If the first stage is considered initiation, this stage can be called ordination. Since the people in that order are supposed to stay in equanimity forever, the monks and nuns are not seen performing the ritual of Sāmāyik. Their vow to stay in Sāmāyik forever is popularly known as Vadi Dikshā.
  3. Parihār Vishuddhi: This denotes practicing purity and can therefore be termed as a stage of higher purification. Leading the monastic life while undertaking special types of penance and austerities is called Parihārvishuddhi. That involves adopting various hard postures known as Pratimās.
  4. Sookshma Samparāy: This denotes a subtle degree of defilement. It conveys a stage where all types of defilement are overcome except for very subtle, wholesome attachment. That attachment can stay up to the tenth stage of spiritual elevation.
  5. Yathākhyāt: It means as laid down. That denotes the stage of total detachment, which occurs at the twelfth stage of spiritual elevation.
 
Sources
Title: Tattvartha Sutra
Translation:
Manu Doshi
Commentary:
Manu Doshi
Publisher:
Federation of Jain Associations in North America & Shrut Ratnakar
Edition:
2007
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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Charitra
  2. Equanimity
  3. Karma
  4. Sanskrit
  5. Sāmāyik
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