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Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda: Four Primary Causes Of Bondage

aṇṇāṇassa du udao jā jῑvāṇaṃ ataccauvaladdhῑ.
 micchattassa du udao jῑvassa asaddahāṇattaṃ..

udao asaṃjamassa du jaṃ jῑvāṇāṃ havei aviramaṇaṃ.
 jo du kalusovaogo jῑvāṇāṃ so kasāudao..

taṃ jāṇa jogaudayaṃ jo jῑvāṇāṃ tu ciṭthaucchāho.
sohaṇamasohaṇaṃ vā kāyavvo viradibhāvo vā..

(Jā jῑvāṇaṃ ataccauvaladdhῑ) The soul's wrong cognition of truth/reality (du aṇṇāṇassa udao) is the result of the rise of perverted knowledge (du jῑvassa asaddahāṇattaṃ) and its wrong belief is the result of (micchattassa udao) the rise of perverted world-view [nescience].

(Du jaṃ jῑvāṇaṃ aviramaṇaṃ) And the soul's absence of abstinence [to abandon the sinful conduct] (asaṃjamassa udao havedi) is the result of the rise of non-abstinence (du jo jῑvāṇaṃ kalusovaogo) and the soul's defiled consciousness [psychic distortions such as cruelty] (so kasāyudao) is the result of rise of passions.

(Tu jo jῑvāṇaṃ sohaṇamasohaṇaṃ vā kāyavvo viradibhāvo vā ciṭṭhaucchāho) And, again, the involvement of the soul in the moral or immoral [sinful] and strong or feeble forms of threefold-mental, vocal and bodily-activities (taṃ jogaudayaṃ jāṇa) are to be recognized as the result of the rise of unsteadiness.


Earlier we have already dealt with the four primary conditions of bondage in verses nos. 3.41,42. Here, the discussion is from a slightly different angle and mainly concerns the rise or the state of fruition of karma. The four primary conditions of bondage are;

  1. Mithyātva—Perverted knowledge which is concomitant with perverted belief (or world-view)
  2. Avirati—Non-abstinence
  3. Kaṣāya—Psychic distortions manifested as passions
  4. Yoga—Conscious involvement in the physical activities.

All these are psychic conditions known as audayika bhāva because they correspond with the state of rise or fruition of karma. The karma does not yield fruit as soon as it is bound. It remains inactive for some time before coming into rise and producing its result. This period of inactivity is called the period of non-production (abādhakāla). Karma comes into rise (udaya) in order to give its fruit and continues to do so uninterruptedly till it has exhausted its potency. This process of fruition of karma acts as an auxiliary causal agent for producing corresponding psychic states. Thus rise of world-view-deluding or belief-deluding (darśana-mohanῑya) karma produces perverted belief, simultaneously producing wrong cognition. The rise of cāritra-mohaniya (conduct-deluding) karma deludes the right conduct and weakens the self-control resulting in non-abstinence (avirati). Passions are also produced by the rise of conduct-deluding karma. Threefold activity-mental, vocal and bodily-is the result of the rise of four non-obscuring karma and body-building (nāma karma) in particular. The embodied state of the soul makes its involvement inevitable. The inherent motionlessness of the soul is vitiated into vibratory motions and cause the karmic matter to be attracted by and bound to the soul.

During earlier discussion on psycho-physical relations, we have mentioned two parallel series of psychical and physical modifications. Here we are dealing with the mutual interaction of the two series. In the physical series the karmic matter—dravya karma—undergoes various processes (such as rise, fruition) which interact with the psychical states and vice versa. In the succeeding verses we shall discuss the interaction of dravya karma and bhāva karma more elaborately.


Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda Publishers:
Jain Vishva Bharati University First Edition: 2009

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Audayika
  2. Audayika Bhāva
  3. Avirati
  4. Bhāva
  5. Consciousness
  6. Dravya
  7. Dravya karma
  8. Karma
  9. Karmic matter
  10. Kaṣāya
  11. Mithyātva
  12. Nāma
  13. Nāma Karma
  14. Nāma karma
  15. Soul
  16. Udaya
  17. Yoga
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