Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda: Causal Potency (Efficiency) Of The Soul From Both Aspects

ṇicchayaṇayassa evaṃ ādā appāṇameva hi karedi.
vedayadi puṇo taṃ ceva jāna attā du attāṇaṃ..

vavahārassa du ādā poggalakammaṃ karedi ṇeyavihaṃ.
 taṃ ceva ya vedayade poggalakammaṃ aṇeyavihaṃ..

(Jāṇa) Know that (ṇicchayaṇayassa evaṃ) according to the transcendental aspect, (ādā appāṇameva hi karedi) the soul can be the material cause of only its own [psychical] attributes; (du puṇo) and again (attā) the soul (taṃ eva attāṇaṃ vedayadi) enjoys its own psychical states.

(Vavahārassa du) According to empirical aspect, however, (ādā aṇeyavihaṃ poggalakammaṃ karedi) the soul does serve as a causal agent for various physical states, (ceva ya taṃ aṇeyavihaṃ poggalakammaṃ vedayade) and also enjoys the fruits of various karma.


Having asserted the Jain position regarding psycho-physical relation in unambiguous and positive terms in the preceding verses, Ācārya Kundakunda now proceeds to clarify the earlier assertion from both transcendental and empirical aspects. This is but consistent with the non-absolutist attitude of the Jains. Transcendentally, the soul and karma have only one causal function, viz., generation and determining their own respective modes states, and remaining, superfluous accessories without any determining influence upon the states of the other. But the non—absolutist Jain do not accept even the ultimate truth as the absolute truth. It is a matter of common experience that in the actual life, i.e., empirically, psychical interests do determine the course of physical actions and vice versa.

And, therefore, in the above verses, it is said that, empirically the psychical and the physical may be said to be inter-determinings. In the worldly life the soul experiences pleasure and pain as fruits of its karma. The soul and karma are ultimately intermingled together and various states of karma produce various psychological responses; urges and impulses are the results of the rise (udaya) of karma and these, in turn, not only generate feelings but also command appropriate action that satisfies the need of the moment. On the other hand abstinence and such other spiritual action follow the subsidence of karma. All these are empirical truths and nobody can deny them. It must, however, be remembered that if the organic unity of the soul and body was ultimate, the soul can never be emancipated because at the time of emancipation the soul is separated from the physical body as well as karma body. Thus the psycho-physical relationship must be examined from both aspects and the distinction between the two aspects shows that both propositions are not inconsistent. It may be said that the soul, not only determines its own psychical states, but also enjoys physical objects of sense-presentations, and the proposition that the soul is the essential cause of its own psychical states is compatible with the proposition' that it is also the enjoyer of the fruits of karma.


Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda Publishers:
Jain Vishva Bharati University First Edition: 2009

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Body
  2. Karma
  3. Karma Body
  4. Kundakunda
  5. Soul
  6. Udaya
  7. Ācārya
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