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Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda: Unambiguous Distinction Of Bhāva Karma From Dravya Karma

jῑvassa du kamm ṇa ya saha pariṇāmā du hoṃti rāgādῑ.
 evaṃ jῑvo kammaṃ ca do vi rāgādimāvaṇṇā..

ekassa du pariṇāmo jāyadi jῑvassa rāgamādῑhiṃ.
 tā ammodayhedūhi viṇā jῑvassa pariṇāmo..

jadi jῑvena sahacciya poggaladavassa kammapariṇāmo.
 evaṃ poggalajῑvā hu do vi kammattamāvaṇṇā..

ekkassa du pariṇāmo poggaladavvassa kammabhāveṇa.
 tā jῑvabhāvahedūhi viṇā kammassa pariṇāmo..

(Jῑvvassa du kammeṇa ya saha rāgādi pariṇāmā du homti) If the psychic states such as attachment and the like are identical with the physical states of karmic matter (evaṃ jῑvo kammaṃ ca do vi rāgādimāvaṇṇā) then both—the soul as well as karmic matter—are said to assume the states of attachment and the like.

(Du) However (rāgamādihiṃ pariṇāmo ekassa jῑvassa jāyadi) such psychological distortions as attachment and the like are exclusively psychic [belong to the soul] () that is why (kammodayaheduhi viṇā) quite distinct from the auxiliary causal potency of the fruition of karma (jῑvassa pariṇāmo) they are produced by and belong to the soul.

(Jadi jῑveṇa sahacciya poggaladavvassa kammapariṇāmo) [Conversely] If both psychic states of jῑva and (eight type of) karma being the states of karmic matter, are believed to be identical (evaṃ poggalājῑva hu do vi kammattamāvanṇṇā) then both jῑva and karmic matter would be deemed to have become karma.

(Du) However (kammabhāveṇa pariṇāmo) the states of eight type of karma (ekassa poggaladavvassa) are exclusively physical/ material () and that is why (jῑvabhāvaheduhi viṇā) apart from the auxiliary potency of the psychic states (kammassa pariṇāmo) they are produced by and belong to karmic matter.

Annotations (on 3.67-3.72):

The problem of relation of the soul and matter (jῑva and karma) occupies a very important place in metaphysical thinking of various Indian philosophical systems. We had occasion to record, briefly, the position of Sāṃkhya system in previous verses. We had seen that system believes in absolute immutability of puruṣa (which is equivalent to soul) but concedes the reality of the corrupt worldly existence. The world processes and states belong to prakṛti (which is equivalent to karmic matter). In other words puruṣa is involved in the evils of the world which does not belong to it. The worldly existence is a state of bondage and as such presupposes fall of puruṣa but Sāṃkhya system is not prepared to admit any change in the being of the puruṣa because of its absolute immutability. Jains, on the other hand, admit real modification of the soul and its concrete association with karmic matter. The soul is ever changing by its own nature, and, in the state of worldly existence, this change is determined by the nature of the karmic matter that is associated with it. The nature of the karmic matter (karmapudgala) is determined by the nature of the passions (kaṣāyas) of the soul and the nature of the passions is determined by the nature of the karmic matter. This mutual determination is due to the mutual auxiliary causal (nimitta) relationship.

Earlier we have already stated that Jains distinguish between material karma—as dravya karma—and its spiritual counterpart as bhāva karma. It is the latter that brings about the psychical distortions-passions, privations and perversion of the pure capacities and faculties of the soul-while the former (dravya karma) are identical with various states and processes of karmic matter that are associated with these privations and perversions. The dravya karma and bhāva karma are mutually related as cause and effect, each of the other. Thus, according to Jains, worldly existence means bondage of both soul and matter in relation to each other and emancipation also means emancipation of both. Just as various psychic states of passions and perversions make up the bondage of the soul, mutation of material atoms of karmic matter into various states of karmaviz., fruition, subsidence etc.make up the bondage of physical substance. It is not difficult to see from this that mutual interaction of the soul and matter and the postulation of the physical counterpart of the psychic states of passions owe their origin to the realistic and empirical world-view of Jains. But for the non-absolutist Jains, empirical aspect is not absolute truth. Just as mutual interaction of soul and matter is empirically true, so also, transcendentally the parallelism of the two series of mutation is equally true and real. Let us discuss this a bit further.

Just as dravya karma and bhāva karma are distinguished so also two distinct causal agencies are recognized viz., substantive cause (upādāna kartā) and auxiliary or external cause (nimitta kartā). Thus the soul is the substantive cause of all psychic states (bhāva karma) while fruition etc. of karma may be an external cause. Conversely karmic matter is the sole substantive cause of all the states of karma, viz., bondage, fruition etc, (dravya karma) while the soul is the external auxiliary cause, change in dravya karmarise or subsidenceacting as an auxiliary causal agent, brings about a corresponding change in bhāva karma i.e. a perversity or a purity in the soul. The bhāva karma, in its turn, acting as substantive causal agent, brings about its corresponding emotional states. Thus dravya karma and bhāva karma both determine the occurrence of an emotional state. But from substantive aspect only the soul is taken to be the causal agent or kartā because a psychic change can only be brought about by the psyche which has no direct causal relation with the other substance-matter. Thus it is established that the soul itself is the substantive causal agent producing the emotional states which are also indirectly conditioned by karmic matter.

Keeping in mind the distinction between substantive or intrinsic condition (upādāna) and auxiliary or extrinsic condition, we can say that mutation of soul and karmic matter form two independent series and yet the two series are corresponding and interrelated. Karmic matter can never take the form of a psychic state nor can the psyche undergo a physical change. Thus a kind of psycho-physical parallelism is indicated. But this parallelism is not merely the temporal correspondence but is transcended and reconciled by the doctrine of auxiliary causality. Inspite of well-defined distinction between the conscious soul and the unconscious karmic matter, the two are related by a special conception of causal relation. The unconscious could be the auxiliary causal agent of the conscious and vice versa. But one can never be the (upādāna) substantive cause of the other.


Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda Publishers:
Jain Vishva Bharati University First Edition: 2009

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Bhāva
  2. Dravya
  3. Dravya karma
  4. Karma
  5. Karmic matter
  6. Nimitta
  7. Prakṛti
  8. Puruṣa
  9. Soul
  10. Sāṃkhya
  11. Upādāna
  12. kaṣāyas
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