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Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda: Two Series Of Spiritual Imperfections

Micchattaṃ puṇa duvihaṃ jῑvamajῑvaṃ taheva aṇṇāṇaṃ.
 aviradi jogo moho kohādῑyā ime bhāvā..

Poggalukammaṃ michiaṃ jogo aviradi aṇāṇamajjῑvaṃ.
 uvaogo aṇṇāṇaṃ aviradi micchaṃ ca jῑvo du..

(Puṇa micchattaṃ duvihaṃ) Again perversion is of two kinds, viz., (jῑvamajῑvaṃ) psychical perversion and physical [or karmic] perversion; (taheva) similarly (aṇṇāṇaṃ, avirudi, jogo, moho, kohādῑya ime bhāvā) perverted knowledge, inabstinence, activity, delusion, anger and such other (spiritual imperfections) are all of two kinds.

(Poggalakammaṃ) Karmic matter is the material cause of (micchaṃ) perversion (jogo) activity (aviradi) non-abstinence and (aṇṇāṇaṃ) perverted knowledge (ajῑvaṃ) of physical series while (jῑvo du uvaogo) the soul is the material cause of (aṇṇāṇaṃ aviradi micchaṃ) ignorance's, non-abstinence and perversion of physical series.


To fully grasp the complex nature of psycho-physical relation with particular reference to karma, we have to begin with the beginningless corruption of the self (spirit) by the non-spirit (matter) which is responsible for the worldly existence. The worldly existence is an intermixture of the spiritual and the material, a beginningless inter-influencing of the two. There is no bondage without inter-relation and there is no inter-relation without bondage. Thus, the worldly existence, as we experience in real life, is impossible without the admission of the relation of identity-cum-difference between psychical and physical identity from empirical aspect and difference from ultimate aspect.

If the soul is involved in imperfections, they must belong to itself. Jains do not accept the absolute immutability of the soul, (as is done by some other systems) and in the worldly state the psychic mutation is influenced by the nature of its karma-pudgala. In fact, there is mutual inter-influence, that is the nature of karma-pudgala is determined by the nature of the psychic imperfections viz., perversion, passions, etc. (bhāva karma) and the nature of psychic imperfection is deterined by the nature of karma-pudgala (dravyu karma).[1] We have already discussed earlier the distinction between bhāva karma and dravya karma as well as between bhāva āśrava and dravya āśrava.

Thus we have two parallel series of modification psychical and physical mutually superfluous from one aspect and interacting from another.

In the above verses, the author enumerates the main imperfections of the soul: perversion, perverted knowledge;[2] non-abstinence worldly activities, delusion and passions such as anger, pride etc. These imperfections are different forms of bhāva karma and each of them has a physical counterpart or dravya karma. The different forms of bhāva karma cannot take place in the soul without corresponding changes in dravya karma and vice versa. In the succeeding verse the beginningless nature of the main imperfections is further discussed.


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Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda Publishers:
Jain Vishva Bharati University First Edition: 2009

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Ajñāna
  2. Anger
  3. Bhāva
  4. Consciousness
  5. Dravya
  6. Dravya karma
  7. Karma
  8. Karmic matter
  9. Prakṛti
  10. Pride
  11. Soul
  12. Sāṃkhya
  13. Yoga
  14. āśrava
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