Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda: Discernment between The Self And The Non-self Is The Basis Of Saṃvara

uvaoge uvuogo kohādisu ṇatthi ko vi uvaogo.
 kolio koho ceva hi uvaoge ṇatthi khalu koho..

aṭṭhaviyappe kamm ṇenokamme cāvi ṇatthi uvaogo.
uvaogamhi ya kammaṃ ṇokammaṃ cāvi ṇo atthi..

edaṃ tu avivarῑdaṃ ṇāṇaṃ jaiyā du hodi jῑvassa.
 taiyā ṇa kiṃci kuvvadi bhāvaṃ uvaogasuddhappā..

(Uvaogo uvaoge) The consciousness is identical with consciousness alone (kohādisu ko vi uvaogo ṇatthi) consciousness does not exist in anger and the like; (ca) conversely (kohe eva hi koho) anger is identical with anger alone; (khalu uvaoge koho ṇatthi) surely anger does not exist in consciousness.

(Aṭṭhaviyappe kamme ca ṇokamme cāvi uvaogo ṇatthi) Consciousness does neither exist in any of the eight species of karma nor in the gross physical body; (ya) conversely (uvaogamhi kammaṃ ca ṇokammaṃ cāvi ṇo atthi) neither the eight species of karma nor the physical body are the same as consciousness.

(Jaiyā du edam tu avivaridaṃ ṇāṇaṃ jῑvassa hodi) When the soul happens to possess such unperverted [free from doubt and error] knowledge (taiyā uvaogasuddhappā kiṃci bhāvaṃ ṇa kuvvadi) only then the soul which is pure consciousness ceases to indulge in alien thoughts (states) i.e. other than consciousness.


In this chapter, the author discusses Saṃvara stoppage of the influx of karmic matter into the soul. In the preceding chapter we had seen that the perverted world-view—mithyātva—towarts the soul's predilection for truth and is the largest opening/inlet permitting non-stop entry of karmic matter. The first awakening of the predilection for truth-samyaktva-blocks the inlet and stops the inflow of karmic pollution. This process of blocking the entry of pollution is called Saṃvara. The basic benefit of samyaktva—right world-view—is discernment between the ultimate natures of the self and non-self.

In these opening verses of the chapter, the author states that as soon as the inlet of mithyātva is blocked, the soul becomes enlightened and is able to discern separateness of the characteristics of the pure self and those of non-self.

Thus, anger and the like, i.e., passions were considered as psychic states—psychological distortions—corrupting the purity of consciousness (upayoga) which is the most important characteristic of the soul. Similarly the eight species of karma and the gross physical body were also considered affecting pure consciousness. Now with the dawn of enlightenment, consciousness (upayoga) is clearly seen quite distinct from these corrupting entities. This ability of the soul is called bhedavijñāna which is, thus, the first step or sine quâ non for the process of saṃvara i.e., blocking the entry of the karmic matter.

jaha kaṇayamaggitaviyaṃ pi kaṇayasahāvaṃ ṇa taṃ pariccayadi.
 taha kammodayatavido ṇa jahadi ṇāṇῑ du ṇāṇittaṃ.

evaṃ jāṇadi ṇāṇῑ aṇṇāṇῑ muṇadi rāgamevādaṃ.
 aṇṇāṇatamocchaṇṇaṃ ādasahāvam ayāṇaṃto..

suddhaṃ tu viyāṇaṃto visuddhamevappayaṃ lahadi jῑvo.
 jāṇaṃto du asuddhaṃ asuddhamevappayaṃ lahadi..

appāṇamappaṇā ruṃdhidūṇa dopuṇṇapāvajogeṣu.
 daṃsaṇaṇāṇamhi ṭhido icchāvirado ya aṇṇamhi..

jo savvasaṃgamukko jhāyadi appaṇamappaṇā appā.
ṇa vi kammaṃ ṇokammaṃ cedā ciṃtedi eyattaṃ..

appāṇaṃ jhāyaṃto daṃsaṇaṇāṇamaio aṇaṇṇamao.
 lahadi acireṇa appāṇameva so kammapavirnukkaṃ..

(Jaha) Just as (aggitaviyaṃ pi kaṇayaṃ taṃ kaṇayasahāvaṃ ṇa pariccayadi) gold never abandons its nature-goldhood, even when intensely heated [melted] by fire, (taha) in the same way (kammodayaṭavido ṇāṇῑ du ṇāṇittaṃ na jahadi) the enlightened person also never abandons his enlightenment even when tormented and oppressed by the afflictions resulting from the fruition of [vicious] karma. (Evaṃ ṇāṇῑ jaṇadi) Thus, the enlightened person is aware of the [pure nature of the] self, (aṇṇāṇa-tamocchaṇṇaṃ aṇṇāṇῑ ādasahāvaṃ ayāṇaṃto rāgamevādaṃ muṇadi) but the deluded person, being ignorant and unaware of the [true nature] of the self because of the darkness of perverted knowledge, believes attachment and the like to be the self.

(Suddhaṃ to viyāṇaṃto jῑvo visuddhamevappayaṃ lahadi) The soul which is aware of the pure [and perfect] nature of the self attains the pure self (du asuddhaṃ jāṇaṃto asuddhamevappayaṃ lahadi) while one who is unaware of the pure nature of the self attains defiled self.

(Appāṇamappaṇā do-puṇṇapāva-jogesu ruṃdhidūṇa daṃsaṇa-ṇāṇamhi ṭhido) He, abandoning all moral as well as sinful activities, is totally absorbed in the characteristics of the pure self viz., knowledge and intuition [through self-meditation]; (ya) and (aṇṇamhi icchāvirado savvasaṃgamukko) renouncing all desires of attachment to aliens and renouncing all internal as well as external possessions (jo appā appāṇamappaṇā jhāyadi) the soul who concentrates on the self through the self [self-meditation]; (kammaṃṇa vi ṇokammaṃ) but does not concentrate on the subtle karma or gross physical body (cedā eyattaṃ ciṃtedi) such a soul endowed with such unique qualities contemplates and experiences solitariness; (so appāṇaṃ jhāyaṃto) and such a soul, again, with the self-meditation (daṃsaṇaṇāṇamaio aṇaṇṇamao) totally absorbed in itself and its characteristic qualities-knowledge and intuition—(acireṇa eva kammapavimukkaṃ appāṇaṃ lahadi) in a short time realizes itself in the pure state completely free from all karma.

tesiṃ hedū bhaṇidā ajjhavasāṇāṇi savvadarisῑhiṃ.
 micchattaṃ aṇṇ
āṇaṃ aviradibhāvo ya jogo ya..10

heduabhāve ṇiyamā jāyadi ṇāṇissa āsavaṇiroho.
āsavabhāveṇa viṇā jāyadi kammassa du ṇiroho..

kammassābhāveṇa ya ṇokammāṇaṃ pi jāyadi ṇiroho.
 ṇokammaṇiroheṇa ya saṃsāraṇirohaṇaṃ hodῑ..

(Savvadarisihiṃ tesiṃ hedū micchattaṃ aṇṇāṇaṃ ya aviradibhāvo ya jogo ajjhavasāṇāṇi bhaṇidā) The omniscients have [identified and shown the four primordial] conditions of influx, viz. (i) perverted world-view, (ii) wrong cognition, (iii) non-abstinence, and (iv) activities, concomitant with relevant psychic conditions.

(Ṇāṇissa hedu-abhāve ṇiyamā āsava-ṇiroho jāyadi) An enlightened person is able to block the influx in the absence of the conditions of influx [i.e. absence of bhāva āśrava] (āśrava-bhāveṇa viṇā kammassa du ṇiroho jāyadi) and in the absence of influx there is no bondage; (ya kammassu bhāveṇa nokammaṇaṃ piṇiroho jāyadi) and in the absence of bondage (of karmic body) there is no physical body; (ya nokamma viroheṇa saṃsāra nirohaṇaṃ hodi) and in the absence of physical body there cannot be worldly existence [i.e. there is final emancipation].

(Idi chaṭṭhamo saṃvarādhiyāro samatto)

[Here ends the sixth chapter on Saṃvara (Inhibition).]


Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda Publishers:
Jain Vishva Bharati University First Edition: 2009

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anger
  2. Bhāva
  3. Body
  4. Consciousness
  5. Karma
  6. Karmic Body
  7. Karmic matter
  8. Mithyātva
  9. Omniscients
  10. Samyaktva
  11. Saṃsāra
  12. Saṃvara
  13. Soul
  14. Upayoga
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