Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda: The Soul And The Condition Of Bondage Are Not Identical

jaha jῑvassa aṇaṇṇuvaogo koho vi taha jadi aṇaṇṇo.
 jῑvassājῑvassa ya evamaṇaṇnattamāvaṇṇaṃ..

āevamiha jo du jῑvo so ceva du ṇiyamado tahājῑvo.
 ayameyatte doso paccayaṇokammakammāṇaṃ..

aha puṇa aṇṇo koho aṇṇuvaogappago havadi cedā.
 jaha koho taha paccaya kammaṃ ṇokammamavi aṇṇaṃ..

(Jaha jῑvassa aṇaṇṇuvaogo) Just as knowledge and intuition, the characteristic attributes of the soul, are identical with it (taha jadi koho vi aṇaṇṇo) if the anger is also believed to be identical with the soul, (evaṃ jῑvassājῑvassa ya aṇaṇṇattaṃ) then both the soul and the non-soul would become identical.

(Evaṃ ca) If that happens to be the case (iha jo du jῑva) in the whole universe whatever belongs to the psychical order of existence (so eva du ṇiyamado tahā ajῑvo) will also be identified with the physical order of existence, (paccaya-ṇokamma-kammāṇaṃ eyatte) in the same way, condition of bondage, [dravya karma] physical body and kārmaṇa body will also have to be believed to be fallaciously identical with the soul.

(Aha puṇa) But, again, [being afraid of the patent fallacy] (koho aṇṇuvaogappago cedā aṇṇa) if you consider anger to be different from the soul which is characterized by (upayoga) consciousness, (jaha koho taha paccaya kammaṃ ṇokammamavi aṇṇuṃ) then if anger is different from the soul so are the conditions of bondage [dravya karma], physical body and karmic body.


In these verses Ācārya Kundakunda emphasizes the difference between dravya karma and bhāva karma. The latter is psychical while the former is physical. Knowledge and intuition, being attributes of the soul, belong to it and can be considered identical with it. But, anger, (as well as other passions), being modification of dravya karma, is physical and not psychical. Hence it is wrong to identify anger with soul or its states. Only bhāva karma i.e., psychical states can be said to belong to the soul. If the physical attributes such as anger are attributed to the soul, there will be no distinction between the soul and the non-soul.

  1. Dravya karma—anger and the like,
  2. nokarma—physical or gross body and
  3. karma—subtle karmic body, all three are physical and therefore different from the soul. If one is prepared to accept the distinction between the anger and the soul, he should also be prepared to accept the same between dravya karma, nokarma and karma on the one hand and the soul on the other.

Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda Publishers:
Jain Vishva Bharati University First Edition: 2009

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anger
  2. Bhāva
  3. Body
  4. Consciousness
  5. Dravya
  6. Dravya karma
  7. Karma
  8. Karmic Body
  9. Kundakunda
  10. Nokarma
  11. Soul
  12. Upayoga
  13. Ācārya
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