The Enigma Of The Universe ► Contents of the Book

Posted: 08.08.2014

 

CONTENTS[1]

 

Blessings

3

 

Foreword

5-7

 

Author's Preface

9-28

 

Prologue

1-8

 

Science and Philosophy

1

 

Views of Scientists

3

 

A Comparative Study

4


CHAPTER 1
WHAT IS UNIVERSE?

 

 

 

(A)

NATURE OF REALITY: IDEALISM AND REALISM

9-85

 

Substance, Quality & Change

9-40

 

Fundamental Questions

14

1.

Philosophical Idealism

16-20

 

Plato

16

 

Other Idealists

18

 

Hume

18

 

Kant

18

2.

Idealism of the Scientists

21-26

 

Sir A. S. Eddington

21

 

Sir James Jeans

22

 

Hermann Weyl

25

 

Other Scientists

26

3.

Philosophical Realism

26-31

 

Ancient Realists

27

 

Modern Realists: Descartes

28

 

Bertrand Russell

29

 

Prof. Henry Margenau

31

4.

Realism of the Scientists

32-40

 

Albert Einstein

32

 

Werner Heisenberg

34

 

Whittaker

36

 

Hans Reichenbach

37

 

C.E.M. Joad 

37

 

Materialistic Realism of Soviet Scientists 

38

(B)

SPACE AND TIME 

41-83

1.

In Western Philosophy 

42-51

 

Plato and Aristotle 

43

 

Scholasticism 

45

 

Descartes, Gassendi and Leibnitz

47

 

Kant 

49

2.

Pre-Einsteinian Scientific Concept 

51-54

 

Optics and Mechanics 

52

 

Ether and Wave Theory of Light 

53

3.

Discovery of Theory of Relativity:

 

Michelson And Morley's Experiment 

54-60

 

Fitzgerald and Lorentz 

56

 

Dr. Albert Einstein 

58

4.

General Theory of Relativity 

60-67

 

Newton's Laws 

60

 

Generalization by Einstein 

61

 

Two Imaginary Experiments 

62

 

Equivalence of Gravitation and Inertia

63

 

Field Point Of View

64

 

Curvature of Space 

65

 

Features of Gravitational Field 

66

5.

Post-Einsteinian Scientific Concept 

67-72

 

Physical Implications 

70

6.

Non-Euclidean Geometry And Einsteinian Space 

72-77

 

Discovery of Non-Euclidean Geometry 

73

 

Space: Euclidean or Non-Euclidean? 

74

 

Einsteinian Space: Non-Euclidean 

76

7.

Philosophical Implications of Theory of Relativity 

77-84

 

Einstein's Interpretation 

77

 

Reichenbach's Interpretation 

79

 

Prof. Margenau's Interpretation 

83

(C)

SUMMARY

84-85

 

CHAPTER 2
UNIVERSE IN MODERN SCIENCE 

86-113

(A)

HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE? 

86-98

1.

Dilemma 

87-95

2.

Solution by Theory of Relativity 

87

 

Universe: Finite and Non-Euclidean 

87

 

Einsteinian Model 

88

 

Mathematical Computation 

91

 

Astronomical Calculations 

93

 

Other Models 

94

 

3.

The Expanding Universe

95-98

 

Red-shift in Spectra

95

 

Modified Calculations

96

 

Different Interpretations

97

4.

Conclusion

98

(B)

HOW OLD IS THE UNIVERSE?

99-112

1.

Universe with Beginning and End

99-105

 

Hubble's Constant

99

 

Abbe Lemaitre's View

100

 

Dr. Gamow's Evolutionary Universe

100

 

Heisenberg's View

101

 

Prof. Martin Ryle's Theory

102

 

Other Theories of Beginning of the Universe 

103

 

End of Universe, Second Law of Thermodynamics

104

2.

Universe without Beginning and End

105-113

 

Self-pulsating Universe

105

 

Hyperbolic Universe

106

 

Cyclic Universe

107

 

Steady-state Universe

109

 

Einstein's Universe

112

3.

Conclusion

112

(C)

SUMMARY

113

 

CHAPTER 3
JAIN COSMOLOGY

114-180

1.

WHAT IS UNIVERSE?

114-131

 

Metaphysics

114

 

Persistence-through-Modes

115

 

Qualities

116

 

Space: Cosmic and Supra-cosmic

117

 

Positive and Negative Ethers

117

 

Kāla (Time) Substance

124

 

Pudgala (Matter) and Jīva (Soul)

129

 

Four-point Cosmological Theory

131

2.

UNIVERSE: SIZE AND SHAPE

131-165

 

How Big is the Universe?

133

 

Mathematical Discussion

136

 

Digambara Tradition

136

 

Shvetambara Tradition

140

 

The Difference in Two Traditions and its

 

Critical Examination 

144

 

In the Light of Modern Mathematical Methodology

155

 

COMPUTATION OF RAJJU

159

1.

Computation of Rajju based on Colebrookes's Definition

162

2.

Computation of Rajju based on the Magnitude of the Continents and Oceans of the Middle Universe 

165

3.

UNIVERSE FROM TIME-POINT OF VIEW 

168-179

 

Beginninglessness and Endlessness of Universe 

168

 

Kāla-cakra (Time-cycle) 

173

 

Present Age 

177

 

The Topic of the Severest Aeon of Extreme Privation

178

A.

SUMMARY

180

 

CHAPTER 4
A CRITIQUE 

 181-329

I.

What is Universe?      

181-273

A.

PHILOSOPHICAL IDEALISM & JAIN VIEW 

181-189

1.

Various Forms of Idealism

181-182

 

Pantheism 

181

 

Transcendentalism

182

 

Empiricism 

182

2.

Theism, Panthesim & Jainism 

182-183

 

Refutation of Pantheism 

183

3.

Plato & Jainism 

183-184

 

Plato's Theory of Idea 

183

 

Jain Metaphysical View 

184

 

Russell's Refutation of Plato's View

184

4.

Kant & Jainism

.184-186

 

Comparison 

185

 

Contrast 

186

5.

Empiricism & Jain Philosophy

186-189

 

Refutation on Common-sense Grounds 

186

 

Is Reality Independent of Perception? 

188

B.

IDEALISM OF THE SCIENTISTS AND JAIN VIEW 

189-241

1.

Eddington's View and Jain View

189-228

 

Confusion in Eddington's View 

190

 

Essence of Soul 

194

 

Reality of Matter 

195

 

Physical World 

197

 

Physical Knowledge 

198

 

Comparison with Jain View 

201

 

Laws of Physics 

202

 

Subjectivity and Objectivity of Physical Properties

207

 

Explanation by Jain Theory 

210

 

Sensory Perception 

211

 

Extra-sensory-perception (E. S. P.) 

212

 

Rebuttal of Eddington's View 

212

 

Phenomenon of Colour 

214

 

Raman's Study of Colour 

216

 

Doppler Effect and Colour 

219

 

Relativity of Colour to Gauge 

220

 

Perception of Colour through Cutis 

222

 

Fundamental Properties of Electron 

223

 

Sound-not a Quality 

224

 

Sense-organs and Sensory Qualities 

225

 

Limitation of Science 

226

 

Conclusion 

227

2.

View of Sir James Jeans & Jain View 

228-237

 

Stebbing's Criticisms 

229

 

Lack of Clarity 

231

 

Influence of Plato and Berkeley 

232

 

Comparison with the Jain View 

233

3.

Other Idealists and the Jain View 

237-241

 

H.Weyl 

237

 

Mach 

238

C.

REALISM AND THE JAIN VIEW 

 241-262

1.

Materialism and the Jain view 

241

 

Definition of Matter 

242

 

Reality of Soul 

242

 

Refutation of Materialism 

243

I.

The Methodological Argument 

243

II.

The Mechanical Argument: 

246

III.

The Cosmological Argument 

249

2.

Philosophy of B. Russell & Jain View 

253-262

D.

REALISM OF SCIENTISTS 

262-273

1.

Critical Realism & Jain View 

262-264

2.

Philosophy of Heisenberg and the Jain View 

264-267

E.

SUMMARY 

267-273

II.

SPACE & TIME: A CRITIQUE 

273-298

1.

Views of Western Philosophers and the Jain View 

273-280

 

First View 

274

 

Second View 

278

 

Third View 

279

 

Concept of Time 

279

2.

Views of Scientists and the Jain View 

280-296

 

Newtonian View And Jain View 

280

 

Theory of Relativity & Jain View 

281-298

 

Subjective Inability or Objective Indeterminacy

282

 

Dr. Heisenberg on Absolute Space 

283

 

Prof. Margenau's Construct 

284

 

The Reality of Space-time 

284

 

Russell's Conceptual Space 

290

 

Zeno's Nest of Space 

291

 

Physical Aspects of the Theory of Relativity 

291

 

Shape of the Universe 

291

 

Fitzgerald Contractions 

292

 

Space and Time related to Each Other 

294

 

Macrocosms and Microcosms 

296

III.

SIZE & AGE OF THE UNIVERSE: A CRITIQUE

298-327

1.

Einsteinan Model of Universe and Jain Loka 

298-306

2.

Theories of Expanding Universe and Jain Lokāloka

306-313

 

Steady State Theory of Prof. Hoyle 

309

3.

Cyclic Theories of Universe and Descending-Ascending Time-cycle 

313-319

4.

Theories of Universe with Beginning and End and Jain Lokāloka 

319-322

5.

Theories of Universe with End and Jain Lokāloka 

322-327

IV.

CONCLUDING REMARKS 

327-329

 

 

   

APPENDICES

331-402

 

APPENDIX I:
SPACE-UNITS IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY 

333-340

 

APPENDIX II:
TIME-UNITS IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY 

341-353

 

Units of Countable Time 

341

 

Table of Units of Countable Time 

343

 

Units of Uncountable Time 

346

 

Palyopama 

346-351

 

According to the Śvetāmbara Tradition 

346-349

1.

Bāclara Uddhāra Palyopama 

347

2.

Sūkṣma Uddhāra Palyopama 

348

3.

Bādara Addhā Palyopama 

348

4.

Sūkṣma Addhā Palyopama

348

 

According to Digambara Tradition 

349-351

1.

Vyavahāra palyopama 

349

2.

Uddhāra palyopama 

350

3.

Addhā Palyopama 

350

 

Relationships between Time-units and Space-units

351

 

Sāgaropama 

352-354

 

According to Śvetāmbara Tradition 

352

 

According to the Digambara tradition 

353

 

 

APPENDIX III
THEORY OF NUMBERS IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY

354-387

(A)

SAṂKHYĀTA (NUMERABLE OR COUNTABLE NUMBER) 

354-372

 

Maximum Numerable Number (U.S.) 

355

 

Value of U. S. as per Digambara Tradition 

355

 

Mathematical Computation

357

 

Definition of Utkṛṣṭa Saṃkhyāta as per the Shvetambara Tradition 

368

 

Mathematical Computation 

369

(B)

ASAṂKHYĀTA (INNUMERABLE) 

373-381

1.

Jaghanya Parīta Asaṃkhyāta (J.P.A) 

373

2.

Madhyama Parīta Asaṃkhyāta (M. P. A.) 

373

3. 

Utkṛṣṭa Parīta Asaṃkhyāta (U.Y. A.)

373

4. 

Jaghanya Yukta Asaṃkhyāta (J. Y. A.)

374

5.  

Madhyama Yukta Asaṃkhyāta (M. Y. A.)

374

6.

Utkṛṣṭa Yukta Asaṃkhyāta (U. Y. A.) 

374

7.

Jaghanya Asaṃkhyātaa Asaṃkhyātaa (J. A. A.) 

374

8.

Madhyama Asaṃkhyāta Asaṃkhyātaa (M. A. A.) 

375

9.

Utkṛṣṭa Asaṃkhyāta Asaṃkhyāta (U. A. A.) 

375

 

Mathematical Computation 

379

(C)

ANANT A (INFINITY) 

381-387

1.

Jaghanya-Parita Ananta (J. P. An.) 

381

2.

Madhyama Parīta Ananta (M. P. An.) 

382

3.

Utkṛṣṭa Parīta Ananta (U. P. An.) 

382

4.

Jaghanya Yukta Ananta (J. Y. An.) 

382

5.

Madhyama Yukta Ananta (M. Y. An.) 

382

6.

Utkṛṣṭa Yukta Ananta (U. Y. An.) 

382

7.

Jaghanya Ananta Ananta (J. An. An.) 

383

8.

Madhyama Ananta Ananta (M. An. An.) 

383

9.

Utkṛṣṭa Ananta Ananta (U. An. An.) 

383

 

APPENDIX IV
MATHEMATICAL METHOD OF FINDING THE VOLUME OF LOKA 

388-402

1.

Approach of Dhavalākāra 

388-396

 

Critique 

393

 

Conclusion 

397

2.

A New Approach based on Modern Mathematical Method...

397-402

 

Scope for Further Research 

401

 

INDEX 

403-437

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

439-445

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Title: The Enigma Of The Universe

Publisher: JVB University Ladnun

English Edition: 2010

HN4U Online Edition: 2014

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