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The Enigma Of The Universe : Four-point Cosmological Theory

Published: 02.11.2014
Updated: 02.07.2015

The theory of the universe (loka) has been explained from four points of view. Lord Mahavira, answering a question, ‘From how many points of view the universe is explained?’ to his disciple Gautama, states that:[1] “There are four points of view to explain the universe:

  1. Universe from substance-point of view.
  2. Universe from space-point of view.
  3. Universe from time-point of view.
  4. Universe from modes-point of view.

The first point we have already discussed. The second and third we shall discuss later on at length. The fourth point we discuss here. Each of the substances (positive ether, etc.) possesses infinite number of attributes and modes. Substance is defined also as-that which is real (sat) is substance.[2] We have already defined sat.[3] In this postulate, the nature of reality is explained by the doctrine of ‘persistence through modes’, which states that all realities are possessed of dual properties, one transitory and the other eternal. Due to the first, all things are in a state of flux, i.e., they undergo transformations constantly, they cease to be and they become; while due to the second property, they do not lose their existence throughout the transformations-the substance persists through modes. Although the detailed discussion of the doctrine cannot be made here, it would be enough to note here that it can be much helpful in solving the problem of eternity of the universe.


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Title: The Enigma Of The Universe Publisher: JVB University Ladnun English Edition: 2010 HN4U Online Edition: 2014

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Ether
  2. Gautama
  3. Loka
  4. Mahavira
  5. Sūtra
  6. Tattvārtha Sūtra
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