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Bhaktambar Stotra: 11 ►VISION OF EVALUATION

Published: 30.11.2019
Updated: 04.12.2019

Manyevarumhari-haraa-dayaevadrishtaa, Drish-teshuyeshuhridayamtvayitoshameti |
 Kim vilzshi-tenabhavataabhuviyenanaanyahKashchin-manoharatinaatha!bhavaan-tareapi ||

I believe that it is good that I saw, other deities before seeing you. After seeing their saraag (with attachments) conduct, your veetaraag conduct is satisfying. What happened on seeing you? O Lord! Now there is nobody who can capture my psyche. Not just in this life, no one can capture my psyche even in my later lives.

Stri-naamshataanishatashojana-yantiputraan, Naanyaasutamtvadu-pamamjananeeprasootaa |
Sarvaadishodadhatibhaanisahasra-rashmim, Prachyevadigjanayatisphura-danshu-jaalam |

Innumerable women give birth to innumerable sons, but a son like you was born only to one mother. All directions contain numerous stars and planets, but the radiating sun with thousands of rays rises only in the East.

In this twenty-first shlok, Acharya Maantung says-'Lord! Before you, I have tried many other philosophies - like the Vaishnav philosophy, Samkhya philosophy and others. After studying them I was introduced to your philosophy. I am glad it happened in this order, because had I studied your philosophy first, I might have considered the other philosophies to be better.' After learning something new a person's curiosity increases on related subjects. It's a natural tendency to be inquisitive about the unknown.

When a person drinking milk sees someone else having another white liquid, they get curious to know what that is. It is possible that the white liquid the other person is having is merely flour mixed in water. But the curiosity is natural and remains until the truth is revealed. Curiosity is defined as "unstable state of mind". It ends when the mind gets the resolution it is looking for. Acharya Maantung has mentioned Hari, Har, etc. It means that he has seen Hari, Har, who propounded different philosophies. But the sense behind it is that he has studied all the six philosophies and after studying all, when he studied your philosophy of non-absolutism, he achieved the ultimate sense of satisfaction.

Manyevarumhari-haraa-dayaevadrishtaa, Drishteshuyeshuhridayamtvayitoshameti |
 Kim vilzshi-tenabhavataabhuviyenanaanyahKashchin-manoharatinaatha!bhavaan-tareapi ||

When Acharya Maantung says that he saw Hari and Har, it is natural for someone to question its possibility. A gap of thousands of years existed between Krishna (Hari) and Acharya Maantung. Shiv (Har) belonged to an ancient age and Acharya Maantung belonged to the medieval period. It is essential to know that just taking the literal sense of a speech one cannot extract the essence of that speech. When author says he had seen Hari, Hara etc., obviously, it was not meant literally but in a philosophical sense. This can be understood only by understanding the essence of their philosophies.

Understanding the True Essence

There is a well-known story of King Takhat Singh. Once in need of wealth, he examined his old account books. It reflected that between Makrana and Khatu there was treasure hidden. Now the distance between Makrana and Khatu was 20-30 kilometres. How does one search in such a vast area'? That was a challenge. One of the wise ministers grasped the true essence of the statement and found the treasure. A stone from Khatu and a stone from Makrana were studded on either side of the King's throne. The real treasure of the kingdom was found right there, under the throne.

Often ordinary people get entangled in the literal meaning and do not ponder over the actual essence of the text. They fail to ponder over questions like- What is the motive of the speaker? What is the crux of their speech? The truth is that without reaching the core of the speech, nothing can be achieved. Acharya Maantung says -'I have read all other philosophies but only the philosophy of non-absolutism convinced me. Now, no other philosophy lures me. No philosophy gives me the same satisfaction.'

Staunch Belief in the Philosophy of Non-absolutism

As per the philosophy of Ekant Nityavad(theory of absolute eternality) - soul is absolutely eternal. No change occurs in it. Changes occur in prakriti(matter). Soul is pure, enlightened and liberated. Ekant Anityavad(theory of absolute non-eternality) believes that soul transforms with each moment. It originates and is destroyed. As per the philosophy of non-absolutism the soul is eternal from one stand-point, and non-eternal from another viewpoint. Therefore soul is both eternal and non-eternal. Soul is eternal as it never loses its existence, and on the other hand it is non-eternal because of the constant changes that occur in it. Acharya Maantung says, -'When I read your philosophy, it gave me substantial gratification and bliss and it had dissolved my attraction towards other philosophies. It gave me logical explanation and ultimate satisfaction.' In this expression of praise for Lord Rishabh, he says­' after studying your extraordinary knowledge, one does not incline towards any other philosophy'

Acharya Maantung uses a beautiful example to explain this-'After understanding the essence of your teachings, I have lost interest, in all other literature that I have read. Had I drunk the milk of Chakravarti's cow first, I would have still wished to taste the milk of other cows. But after having all other milk, I drank the milk of Chakravarti's cow and realized the vast difference between both. I, who relishes the milk of Chakravarti's cow, cannot enjoy any other milk now.'Acharya Maantung continues- 'I studied absolute philosophy followed by the study of philosophy of non-absolutism. Thus, I realized non-absolutism is the philosophy that has solution to all problems'

The Significance of the Philosophy of Lord

A question arises - What is the outcome of studying your philosophy? Acharya Maantung says -'No philosophy attracts me after studying your philosophy! There is a well-known saying about Acharya Bhikshu (the first Acharya of Terapanth Sect) - "Bhikanjee raa bharamaayaa, paachhaa kadai nahi aaya"; meaning, anyone who came to Acharya Bhikshu and listened as well as understood his teachings did not find the need to go anywhere else. The primary reason for this is that his manner of speech and logical way of communicating the philosophical concepts leave the listener spellbound. The listener develops staunch faith in AcharyaBhikshu.

Verbalizing his unparalleled satisfaction, Acharya Maantung says -'The philosophy of non-absolutism will continue to have influence on me in this life and in my subsequent births.' This statement proves his approval towards the philosophy of non-absolutism and rejection of philosophy of absolutism.

If one gets stuck to the literal meaning of shlok and does not delve into deeper meaning, they will conclude that the composer has tried to prove himself superior and denigrate others. On the contrary no philosopher has been blamed here. There are two things - person and his philosophy or principles. A person should not be criticized; the philosophy or principles can be criticized. A person should not be evaluated as good or bad, instead their philosophy or principles can be evaluated as right or wrong. Using logic to prove any principle right or wrong is called critical analysis. A person having discretion analyses on the basis of his logical and intellectual prowess.

There is an incident in Bhagavati Sutra. A conversation took place between Ardrak Kumar and ascetics of Ajivak sect. Several questions were raised by Ajivak ascetics. Ardrak Kumar gave straight forward answers to those questions. Ajivak then said, "You are criticizing us". Giving an astounding reply Ardrak Kumar said, "I am not criticizing any individual, rather, I am remarking on the thoughts and outlook".

In the shlok words are only symbolic. For example, the word 'Hari' denotes the philosophy of Krishna, and the word 'Har' signifies Shaiv philosophy. Through the word 'aadi' (etc.) the composer wants to point at all the absolutist philosophies. Moving beyond words is the way to discover the essence of any philosophy.

Captivating Posture of Lord

Acharya Hemchandra stated "Leave aside your knowledge and perception, even your posture is attractive and captivating. Heterodox has not even learned your posture. Your posture can be described as Paryankshayan, a relaxed body with both eyes focused and centered on the tip of the nose."

Vapushchaparyanka-shayamshlatham cha, Drishau cha naasaaniyatesthire cha |
Na shikshi-teyamparteertha-naathaih, Jinendra! Mudraapitavaanya-daastaam ||

Lord Mahaveer often practiced Animeshpreksha; meditation with unblinking eyes focused on the tip of nose. In language of Prekshadhyan, the tip of the nose known as the Praankendra is important ' because it is the center of vital energy. Meditation on the tip of the nose denotes upward flow of consciousness.

Animesh preksha can be done either by making an external object or a body part as an object of concentration. Lord Mahaveer would gaze on an object and then continue to look at it without blinking. He preferred to focus on the tip of the nose so that the mooladhar or shakti kendra is straightened and the flow of consciousness and vital energy is channelized upwards. Describing this very specific posture of Lord Mahaveer, Acharya Hemchandra says "the eyes which have seen this posture cannot be appealed by the posture of anybody else".

Marudeva -Mother of Lord Rishabh

Stri-naamshataanishatashojana-yantiputraan, Naanyaasutamtvadu-pamamjananeeprasootaa |
Sarvaadishodadhatibhaanisahasra-rashmim, Prachyevadigjanayatisphura-danshu-jaalam ||

In the sequence of this tribute, remembering the mother of Lord Rishabh, Acharya Maantung says, 'Lord! Your mother is so blessed that she has given birth to a unique son like you. Thousands of women give birth to children, but no mother has given birth to one who can be compared to you' History has always praised the parents of great people. A lot has been discussed in Prakrit and Sanskrit literature on the role and importance of parents and children. A mother possessing certain abilities and qualities gives birth to a child with similar characteristics. Modern genetic science believes DNA of parents play an important role in a child's life.

Marudeva was the mother of Lord Rishabh. She is considered as a unique and rare mother in the spiritual world. No mother attained salvation when seated on an elephant. Neither did she wear an ascetic outfit nor did she renounce her mundane life. She was just seated on an elephant and attained salvation.

Bharat came to pay homage to Lord Rishabh. Lord Rishabh said: "Marudevaa bhagavai siddhaa" - Marudeva got liberated. Bharat was astonished by the sudden announcement. He said, "Lord! I left her seated on an elephant just few minutes back and came here to tell you that your mother is lamenting for you. She remains worried for you. She continues to ask, where her son Rishabh is? What is he doing? Who is taking care of him? Is he happy or unhappy? After a long gap, today when we came to know about your whereabouts, she accompanied me here to meet you. I came to inform you about her arrival and you are saying that she has attained salvation?"

Lord Rishabh repeated "Bharat! Marudeva attained emancipation on coming here. Her overflowing emotions transferred into purity of consciousness and she was liberated." Bharat immediately returned to see Marudeva. He saw that Marudeva was truly liberated. Such pious mothers are truly rare. That's why Acharya Maantung declared -No mother other than yours gave birth to such a son.'

In the eighth chapter of Bhaagavat where there is a description about Rishabh, it is said "eighth manu was born to Nabhi and Marudeva. The child has big legs". Describing the quality of Rishabh, here it is said "He was respected by all the ashrams-sarvaashramanamaskritah. He was revered by not one religion or sect, but by all.

Among the 24 Jain teerthankars, three of them had great influence. They were acknowledged not only in Jain philosophy but also in other philosophies. The foremost acknowledged teerthankar is Lord Rishabh. Many idols were found during the excavation done in the provinces in Middle Asia, Magadh, Sindh etc. and majority of them were of Lord Rishabh. This study helped scholars to endorse the vast influence of Adinath. At some places, he is acknowledged by the name 'Rashabh' and as 'Rishabh' in other places. Even today Rishabh is a figure of belief in different forms, at different places.

Another influential teerthankar is Parshvanath.In Ramcharitmanas Tulsidas paid homage to Lord Parshva. One more influencial teerthankar is Neminath. There is mention of Adinath, Parshvanath and Neminath in Nath sect. A detailed explanation regarding these three teerthankars is found in other literature too.

Description of Lord Rishabh is found in almost all the Puranas. Various sources depict, "Rishabh is followed by not only Jain followers but by followers of almost all religions”. Such a universally recognized son was born to mother Marudeva. Therefore, Acharya Maantung says -'Thousands of women give birth to sons, but no mother delivered a child as mother Marudeva did.'

Role of a Mother

It is the golden time to instill values when a child is still in the womb.

A mother plays the most important role in making of a child's life.

There was a mother named Madalsa. She used to train her child from the time of conception. As soon as the child was conceived, Madalsa started instilling sanskar(values) in the child. It is the golden time to instill values when a child is still in the womb. Once a mother approached Socrates, "My son has turned five and I have admitted him in school for gaining knowledge and instilling values. Socrates said, "It's too late. The period of instilling values starts from the very first sign of life."

A wise and divine mother starts instilling sanskars in the child right from the moment of conception. Madalasa was a mother who did just that!

Shuddhosibuddhosiniranjanosi, Sansara-maayaa-parivarjitosi.

This sentence means - you are pure, enlightened, and immaculate. You are beyond the worldly illusion. Madalsa used to recite this shlok every day to the unborn child. The reason behind her recitation was to make her child a divine and renounced saint. When she conceived her second child, she decided to make this child an efficient political leader. She started to teach political doctrines to the child when he was in her womb. Consequently, the child grew up to be an influential political leader.

The child of a wise and visionary mother is definitely going to be qualitatively graceful. Similarly, a child of an ignorant mother becomes like her. Ignorance of parents during pre-natal stage leads to birth of a mentally challenged or physically challenged or undeveloped child. Here, parents become the cause of disorder in children. Various regulations have been defined for managing pregnancy and giving birth in the right manner. Parents who are ignorant about these laws of do's and don'ts sow the seed of problems for their child. In the context of a birth of a child Acharya Maantung presented a simple but significant psychological fact "A mother gives birth to a child like herself."

It is difficult to get a good mother. I myself experienced that the sanskars given to me by my mother Baluji became helpful in my self-development. When I was a child, I noticed my mother used to wake up early in the morning and practice two to three samayiks. In samayik she used to recite religious hymns that touched my subconscious mind deeply. Those sanskars influenced my faith towards Acharya Bhikshu. Although I have never seen Acharya Bhikshu, my faith for him was awakened. How did that happen? The reason was my mother. As a child I used to hear my mother recite eulogical hymns on AcharyaBhikshu and those were imprinted in my mind and gradually a firm faith cultivated. A mother who is conscious and aware about making her child sanskari takes the credit to build his qualified personality. If we hear and see anything repeatedly it will be imprinted in our subconscious mind, whether good or bad.

If we hear and see anything repeatedly, it will be imprinted in our subconscious mind, whether good or bad.

Understanding the Value of Qualities

Acharya Maantung sketched the qualities of a mother as well as the child. That mother is not said to be a good mother who does not fulfill the duty of cultivating sanskars in her child. That child is also not good who is neither humble nor efficient or who is idle and burdensome. Therefore, the composer said,-'Lord! In your context both the aspects are powerful your mother was astonishingly pious and great, and you too are alike'

Elaborating his talk Acharya Maantung says -'There are constellations and stars in every direction, but all directions do not give rise to the sun. Illumination is one thing, but to manifest the cluster of illumination (Sun) is completely different' All directions get illuminated as soon as the cluster of light, the Sun, manifests. Mother Marudeva gave birth to a 'Sun' like baby through which the whole universe was spiritually enlightened.

Acharya Maantung has not emphasized birth or physique of Marudeva, nor that of Lord Rishabh. He has just highlighted their unique qualities.

Generally, a person only looks at other's weaknesses. Where there is an opportunity to appreciate others, we go silent. However, when it comes to criticizing others, our mouth does not even pause. Everyone is not wise enough to acknowledge and evaluate the qualities of a commendable person. A gem can be identified and evaluated by a jeweller but perhaps not by a layman. A layman may consider the gem as a mere piece of glass and under-value it. The same piece when examined by a jeweler becomes a precious stone.

A tribal man (beheld) was going with his wife. On the way they found a bright white pearl necklace. The tribal man told his wife, "This is a beautiful set of pearls. Why don't you wear it?” His wife said "I don't like it; these are only white pearls. The necklace of beads I am wearing is much better than this. See how beautiful this necklace of red and black beads is! Compared to my necklace these pearls are unworthy."

Anyone who considers a necklace of red and black stone beads as precious, can never appreciate the value of precious jewels. Not everyone has an eye for quality. Acharya Maantung says "Lord! Whether other people acknowledge your qualities or not, in my perspective, your qualities are invaluable. Thus, I can repeatedly affirm that no mother gave birth to a son like you."


Title:  Bhaktambar Stotra
Author:  Acharya Mahapragna
Publisher:  Adarsh Sahitya Sangh
Digital Publishing: 
Amit Kumar Jain

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Acharya
  2. Acharya Bhikshu
  3. Acharya Hemchandra
  4. Adinath
  5. Animesh Preksha
  6. Bhagavati Sutra
  7. Bhikshu
  8. Body
  9. Center of Vital Energy
  10. Concentration
  11. Consciousness
  12. DNA
  13. Ekant
  14. Ekant Anityavad
  15. Ekant Nityavad
  16. Jain Philosophy
  17. Jinendra
  18. Kendra
  19. Khatu
  20. Krishna
  21. Magadh
  22. Mahaveer
  23. Manu
  24. Meditation
  25. Mooladhar
  26. Nath
  27. Neminath
  28. Non-absolutism
  29. Parshvanath
  30. Prakrit
  31. Prakriti
  32. Preksha
  33. Prekshadhyan
  34. Puranas
  35. Rishabh
  36. Samayik
  37. Samkhya
  38. Sanskar
  39. Sanskrit
  40. Science
  41. Shakti Kendra
  42. Shlok
  43. Socrates
  44. Soul
  45. Sutra
  46. Teerthankar
  47. Terapanth
  48. Vaishnav
  49. Veetaraag
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