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Published: 28.11.2019
Updated: 04.12.2019

Naastamkadaachi-dupayaasinaraahu-gamyah, Spashtee-karoshisahasaayugapaj-jaganti |
Naambho-dharodara-niruddha-mahaa-prabhaavahSooryaati-shaayi-mahi-maasimuneendra! Loke||

 O Monk above monks! Your boundless glory is greater than that of the sun. The sun rises every day and sets as well, but the orb of your omniscience never sets. The sun can be eclipsed by rahu (planets), but your orb of omniscience cannot be eclipsed. The sun illuminates a limited area, but the glow of your omniscience illuminates all the three realms at once. Sun rays are obstructed by clouds, but the great radiance of your knowledge is never obstructed.


The moon shines only at night, but your moon-like face always radiant. Moon light penetrates darkness; your face removes the darkness of ignorance and desire. The moon is eclipsed by rahu; your face is not eclipsed whatsoever. Moon is concealed by clouds, but there is nothing that can veil your face. The moon illuminates a limited area, but your moon-like face illuminates the entire world. Hence, your face is wonderful and immensely radiant.

Power and light are worshipped since ages. The composer has worshipped light first, but later discovered that Lord Rishabh is the 'illuminated personality'. Lamp is an illuminating object of external world. Acharya Maantung at first wondered if the Lord was like a lamp. However, he realized that this would be an unfair comparison as the brightness emitted by a lamp did not match that of the Lord. Then his attention was drawn towards the sun which illuminates the entire earth. The sun seemed like an apt comparison.

For a poet to find the right metaphor when describing someone it is essential that they understand and outline the nature of the primary element and match it to their character. Comparing Lord to the sun, Acharya Maantung composed the following shlok–

Naastamkadaachi-dupayaasinaraahu-gamyah, Spashtee-karoshisahasaayugapaj-jaganti |
Naambho-dharodara-niruddha-mahaa-prabhaavahSooryaati-shaayi-mahi-maasimuneendra! Loke||

Sun and Its Characteristics

Uniqueness of Adinath

The Sun illuminates the Earth but it also sets. There is always a part of the world that lies in darkness. When the sun rises in the East, it sets in the West.

Lord is a source of continuous light that never sets.

At the time of complete solar eclipse (when Rahu eclipses the Sun), darkness reigns over the entire Earth.

Lord cannot be eclipsed by Rahu.

Sunlight does not spread evenly across all surfaces. There are corners and crevices that do not receive sunlight at all.

Lord does not illuminate a confined area; rather his enlightenment stretches into infinity.

Sun is the brightest star, yet the density of clouds can envelope its luminescence.

Lord is never enveloped by clouds.

Analysing this, Acharya Maantung says - 'Lord! I cannot compare you with the sun. You neither set nor can be eclipsed. You illuminate the whole universe at the same time. Even dense clouds cannot obstruct your supreme influence.'

The Uniqueness of Adinath - The Profound Truth

The characteristics of lord are much more significant than the sun. Let Us now discuss the four ways in which Adinath is unique
  • The Lord never sets -The process of rising and setting exist as long as omniscience is veiled by karmas. Until the veil exists, changes occur. For one who has annihilated the veil, knowledge is completely revealed and never fades. The Lord has attained omniscience and his veil of karma has been eradicated. With the attainment of omniscience, there is no question of rising and setting.

  • The Lord cannot be eclipsed - The sun gets eclipsed by Rahu. Rahu is considered to be black in colour, just as evil deeds are portrayed to be dark. Jain Aagam explains in detail about the colour, taste, smell and touch of the atomic particles of paap (demerit). Acharya Maantung says - 'Lord! You have destroyed all karma thus Rahu cannot eclipse you. Because of the absence of the deluding karma you do not indulge in evil deeds and consequently there is no question of sin occurring' This is the state of Anand atishay and Charitra atishay (extraordinary state of bliss and conduct). There is no question of eclipse of Rahu in the state of Veetaragata.
    It is known that planets have their influence on living beings. However, that occurs as long as evil resides in the soul. Two types of people remain uninfluenced by planetary effect - one who has no possession and the other who is free from evil. Planets cannot harm them. In the absence of evil (auxiliary cause) planetary effects are totally ineffective. Acharya Maantung says - 'Lord! You have destroyed deluding karma. Therefore, Rahu cannot eclipse you'

  • Lord illuminates the whole universe - Elimination of knowledge obscuring karma and deluding karma resulted in his knowledge to be so profound that it illuminated the whole universe. Lord Rishabh revealed substances such as Dharmastikay (auxiliary medium of motion), Adharmastikay (auxiliary medium of rest), Akashastikay (infinite space) Pudgalastikay (non-living kingdom) and Jivastikay (sentient beings). How does one acquire knowledge about these substances? It is the outcome of that perfect knowledge which illuminates the entire universe. All that is described in Aagam is a consequence of gyanatishay (extraordinary knowledge)

  • No cloud can envelop your knowledge of Lord- Your energy is so potent that no external factor can obstruct your energy. No one can block it. Clouds obstruct the energy of sun, but it cannot impede you. In the absence of sunshine, we say that clouds have covered sunlight. When power becomes unceasing, no factor remains to cause any kind of obstruction. Acharya Maantung says - 'Lord! Your power has become omnipotent that nothing can become an impediment for it. This is the state of veeryaatishay (extra ordinary power).'

Lord has reached the pinnacle of knowledge and destroyed the 'Knowledge - Obscuring' karma (gyanavaraniya), 'Intuition-Obscuring' karma (darshanvaraniya), Deluding' karma (mohaniya), and 'Obstmctive' karma (antaray). He is free from all four detrimental karmas. In this state, the Lord cannot be compared to the sun. Acharya Maantung continues- 'Lord! I attempted to compare you with sun but found myself unable to do so. The sun stands nowhere in front of your greatness.'

The Moon and its Characteristics

Acharya Maantung wonders if he can compare the Lord to the Moon. He has taken the poetic liberty to compare the sun first and the moon next.


Acharya Maantung compares - 'Moon also sets but you are an eternal illuminator.' In the context of the sun it is said that you never set, and with respect to the moon it is said you are always illuminated. The meaning of both seems to be similar. Moon shines at night, but in day time it looks like a lacklustre cloud. Moon can only dispel limited darkness. The Lord, on other hand, has destroyed the densest darkness of delusion. This is the reason behind calling him the eternal illuminator. One who has eliminated the darkness of delusion can remain eternally risen. One who has not destroyed the delusion keeps on rising and setting. This is a great maxim of spirituality.

Understanding the types of people around us

On the basis of progress and regress there are four types of people –

  • Uditodita - progressive throughout their lifetime.
  • Uditaastamita - progressive in the beginning and regressive towards the end.
  • Astamitodita - regressive in beginning and progressive towards the end.
  • Astamitaastamita- regressive throughout lifetime.

A person can never attain 'ever rising' or 'progressive state' in the presence of delusion. In such a personality when one instinct subsides, another crops up. The cycle of ebb and flow continues. Sometimes the same person, who appears to be cool and calm, becomes furious like a beast.

Once there was a hermit meditating in the forest. He was pleased with his continuous state of meditation. He had a pair of tongs next to him.

A passerby saw the hermit and made a joke - "You are a hypocrite. You are only pretending to meditate." As soon as the hermit heard this he got distracted and his meditation broke. He got furious and screamed at the passer-by - "Fool! You called me a deceiver. I will show you what I am." Saying this hermit look the tongs and ran behind the passerby. Clearly the mediation did not serve the purpose as the hermit could not eliminate his negativity.

Such incidents occur when one does not reach an elevated state. There are some moments when one feels that all instincts have been pacified. But as soon as they get external stimulation the pacified state disappears and negative instincts spring up. One who has destroyed delusions as well as all negative instincts can remain in an ever-rising state. Acharya Maantung says -'Lord! You are an ever-rising personality, so Rahu cannot eclipse you. The Sun and the Moon may be eclipsed by Rahu but not you.' It signifies that no one can become a hurdle in your pursuit of your aim. Such a person becomes a 'Siddha yogi' i.e., things happen just as one wishes or thinks.

Clouds of Attachment

Acharya Maantung continues- 'The moon gets concealed behind the clouds, but your illumination never gets veiled.' The deeper sense of this statement is that the clouds of attachment cannot conceal your pure divine light. Attachment is described to be of three types - kaamraag (attachment towards materialistic things), snehraag (attachment towards children, etc), and drishtiraag (attachment towards one's own principles which is outside Jain principles and not along the path of Veetaraag). Kaamraag and snehraag can be eliminated by practice or efforts. But drishtiraag i.e., attachment towards philosophy of one's own sect is difficult to eliminate.

Acharya Hemchandra wrote -

Kaamaraaga-sneharaagaa, veeshat-kara-nivaaranau|
Drishtraagastupaapeeyaan, durucchedahsataamapi||

Acharya Maantung admits - 'O Lord! The clouds of neither Uamraag, snehraag nor drishtiraag can envelop your light. You are beyond their limits of influence.' Portraying the pure and spiritual form at subtle level Acharya Maantung says - 'Adinath! You are a great yogi and sadhak. You've eliminated all types of flaws.' There are 18 types of sins and five types of influx that are considered to be flaws. These flaws pervade our light akin to clouds and fog. You have annihilated all the flaws. Thus, your radiant lotus face shines and spreads boundless light to everyone. The luster of the moon is limited in comparison to your unlimited radiance. After manifestation of inner enlightenment, no other external source of light could stand before it.

Acharya Maantung tried to compare inner enlightenment with external light. His efforts were in vain. He could not compare the Lord with light of lamp, illumination of the sun and lustre of the moon. Acharya Maantung had to admit -'You are an exceptional lamp. You are more significant than sun. You are a unique moon.'

Awakening of the Inner Self

It is a known fact that eliminating inner darkness is more challenging than eliminating external darkness. There are multiple ways to eliminate external darkness; such as fire produced by rubbing two stones against each other, solar energy, hydro, and thermal power plants that generate electricity and aide to dispel darkness. However, each of them extinguishes external darkness with light but cannot awaken the inner light. One whose inner light gets awakened becomes 'Adinath.’

Acharya Maantung praised Lord Rishabh from a spiritual point of view as well as on the basis of Karmic theory. In the field of sadhana, a spiritual practitioner attempts to awake the inner light. He contemplates on the flame of the earthen lamp, lustre of the jewel, rays of the sun and the moon to attain inner enlightenment. After attaining enlightenment no meditation is required.

Lord Mahaveer did animesh-preksha(perception of the tip of the nose with unblinking eyes). He concentrated on one object. But after attaining omniscience, animesh-preksha and other means of external light become irrelevant. The light attained as a result of omniscience and after eradication of delusion cannot be compared with any form of external light. Acharya Maantung revealed this fact in the above two shlokas.

Manifestation of inner light leads to perpetual flow of purity, spontaneous joy and bliss.

Everything is attained with the awakening of the inner light. Lust, misery, restlessness, hatred, frustration etc., are destroyed with the manifestation of inner light. Until it awakens, a person lives at a different mental level. Until inner light manifests, lust kindles every now and then. Manifestation of inner light leads to perpetual flow of purity, spontaneous joy and bliss. Acharya Maantung presented a picture of unparalleled personality of Adinath that symbolises purity and immaculate light. This incomparable illuminating personality of Lord Rishabh has become an object of fascination for Acharya Maantung and can be seen in each and every shlok of Bhaktamar Stotra.


Title:  Bhaktambar Stotra
Author:  Acharya Mahapragna
Publisher:  Adarsh Sahitya Sangh
Digital Publishing: 
Amit Kumar Jain

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Aagam
  2. Acharya
  3. Acharya Hemchandra
  4. Adinath
  5. Anand
  6. Bhaktamar Stotra
  7. Charitra
  8. Karma
  9. Karmas
  10. Mahaveer
  11. Meditation
  12. Mohaniya
  13. Paap
  14. Rishabh
  15. Sadhak
  16. Sadhana
  17. Shlok
  18. Shlokas
  19. Soul
  20. Space
  21. Veetaraag
  22. Veetaragata
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