Acharanga Bhasyam ► Chapter III — Endurance Of Cold And Hot ► Section — 2 ► Sūtras 44-50 : Ethics Of Self-Discipline

Posted: 24.12.2010

3.44 āsevittā etamaṭṭhaṃ iccevege samuṭṭhiyā, tamhā taṃ biiyaṃ no sevae.

Some people engage themselves in the practice of self-restraint after having indulged in taking possession of killing etc. So they do not indulge in those activities anymore.

Bhāsyam Sūtra 44

Even after enjoying the possession and committing violence arising out of it, some people rise above the world, for instance, King Bharata, even though a Cakravarti (paramount sovereign), and Arjunamāli, even though a hardcore terrorist. If possession and violence were the solution, then why did Bharata and others rise above (by abandoning) them? This shows that the sensual objects do not produce satisfaction, nor does the possession likewise. Violence also cannot achieve peace of mind. And therefore one should not repeat indulgence in sensual objects, possessions and violence after having given them up.

3.45 ṇissāraṃ pāsiya ṇāṇī, uvavāyaṃ cavaṇaṃ ṇaccā. aṇaṇṇaṃ car a māhaṇe!

O intelligent person, look, the sensual objects are worthless. Know that birth and death are inevitable. Therefore, O monk! do remain engrossed in soul.

Bhāsyam Sūtra 45

The person who pursues the unique path (end) is capable of abstaining from enjoyment of the sensual objects. The unique state is pure consciousness. It is eternal and substantial, being ever beneficial. There is nothing else more valuable than it. All the sensual objects, being impermanent, are devoid of any essense. The entire world is involved iji the cycle of birth and death.

The Sūtra enjoins on the monk to pursue the unique end. There are two conditions of such pursuit: (1) intuition of the emptiness of the sensual objects and (2) the knowledge of the chain of birth and death. He alone is wise who comprehends both these conditions.

3.45 se ṇa chaṇe ṇa chaṇāvae, chaṇaṃtaṃ ṇāṇujāṇai.

The non-violent person does not kill living beings, nor does he get them killed, nor does he approve of the killer.

Bhāsyam Sūtra 46

Ahimsā is the first sign of the pursuit of the unique path. The monk pursuing the unique end does not kill any creature, nor get it killed by others, nor does he approve of such killer.

3.47 ṇivviṃda ṇaṃdiṃ arate payāsu.

Have disgust for allurements. Do not be allured by woman.

Bhāsyam Sūtra 47

The second sign of the person pursuing the unique path is celibacy. 'Allurement' means merriment. One should cultivate disgust[1] for the allurement arising from sensual objects, or one should definitely know that the sensual objects such as sound, colour, etc., are like the 'kimpāka' fruit which is charming but poisonous. Knowing this, one should not get enamoured of women.

3.48 aṇomadaṃsī ṇisanne pāvehiṃ kammehiṃ.

The person who has realized the unimpeachable self does not commend evil karma.

Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 48

'Impeachable' means low or mean. 'Unimpeachable' means excellent or great. The person who gives up the mean objects and perceives the great, i.e., the self has no inclination to evil deeds, nor is he puffed up by them.

In the Cūrṇi, the word realizer of the unimpeachable has been explained as a person possessed of noble right faith.[2] It therefore follows that a person possessed of right faith does never commit any evil act.

3.49 kohāimāṇaṃ haṇiyāya vīre, lobhassa pāse ṇirayaṃ mahaṃtaṃ. tamhā hi vīre virate vahāo, chiṃdejja soyaṃ lahubhūya-gāmī.

The valiant one should destroy his anger and excessive pride. He should look at greed as a great hell. Therefore the valiant person with attenuated desires, desisting from killing, cuts down the stream of passions.

Bhāsyam Sūtra 49

Anger and the like are evil deeds. It is accordingly said that the valorous one should kill anger and excessive pride[3] and look at greed[4] as fearsome[5] hell.
The Cūrṇi has also propounded that by greed one often produces fearsome hell, due to which the reptiles go to the fifth hell, and the crocodile and man are born in the seventh hell on account of excessive greed.[6]

Therefore the valorous one should abstain from injury to life due to greed, and should cut up the stream of attachment and hatred. Such person attenuates his desires and becomes light (in respect of karma). According to another reading, the sūtra refers to the monk who is not tied up to anything being absolutely as free as wind as regards his movement.

    3.50 gaṃthaṃ pariṇṇāya ihajjeva vīre, soyaṃ pariṇṇāya carejja daṃte. ummagga laddhuṃ iha māṇavehiṃ, ṇo pāṇiṇaṃ pāṇe samārabhejjāsi..— tti bemi.

    The valiant monk, conquering the senses and knowing the nature of possession, leads the life of discipline by immediately giving up attachment and hatred. A person can attain spiritual height in this very life. Having attained that state he should not indulge in violence to living beings. — Thus do I say.

    Bhāsyam Sūtra 50

    The person whose senses and mind are tranquillized is self-composed (and hence a valiant person). He should, here and now, without lapse of time, lead a life of ascetic, comprehending the nature of possession and the causes there of viz., attachment and hatred.

    The 'stream' consists in attachment and hatred. Possession is caused by the stream and violence is caused by possession. This is tantamount to submerging, which is a common feature of all creatures. Emerging is, however, possible only among humans. This emerging is the inhibition of the stream and non-possession, on the attainment of which the self-composed person does not cause injury to any form of life.

    There are three ways to emancipation, viz., knowledge, faith and conduct. Of course, knowledge and faith are possible also among the non- human creatures, but conduct is possible only in humans. Therefore, emerging may also be defined as conduct. Knowledge and faith also can achieve their full value when conjoined with conduct.

    Footnotes:
    [1]
    [2]
    [3]
    [4]
    [5]
    [6]

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