Acharanga Bhasyam ► Chapter III — Endurance Of Cold And Hot ► Section — 1 ► Sūtras 1-25 : The Torpid And The Wide-Awake

Posted: 17.12.2010

3.1 suttā amuṇī say a, muṇiṇo sayā jāgaraṃti.

The ignorant are always asleep, the wise are always awake.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 1

In the present chapter, the forbearance of pleasure and pain with equanimity is explained. The fulfilment of the ends of non-violence and non- possessiveness is not possible without forbearance. In order to fulfill the ends, one has to patiently forbear pleasure and pain. The ignorant is not capable of forbearance. The wise is always awake. He alone is capable of forbearance. The Sūtra expresses this objective truth thus: The wise is he who knows the continuity of the world through the three periods of time (past, present and future), is thoughtful and knowledgeable. The ignorant is quite the opposite. The ignorant people are always asleep.

The asleep are of two kinds: (1) Physically asleep—in the state of sleep. (2) Spiritually asleep—engrossed in violence or possessiveness, or swayed by worldly things and passions, being ignorant of the discipline.

The wakeful is also of two kinds: (1) Physically wakeful—without sleep, (2) Spiritually wakeful—absorbed in non-violence and non-possessi- veness, possessed of right faith, freed of all desires and possessed of enthusiasm for the discipline.

On account of the practice of knowledge, the wise has his psyche, mind, brain and entire nervous system under his control, because of his being always spiritually wakeful. Even in the state of sleep, he does not commit any undesirable act. This is the secret of his complete self- awareness at all times. In poetical literature also, we find the eulogy of constant wakefulness:

"If I had in thought, word or deed, while awake or sleeping, any inclination to being the spouse of any other person other than Rāghava, then, O fire! burn this body of mine, because you alone indeed are the witness to the good or bad will of people."[1]

3.2 loyaṃsi jāṇa ahiyāya dukkhaṃ.

You should know ignorance to be the cause of misfortune.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 2

Ignorance and delusion i.e. the perversity of a person who is asleep is ever on increase. Such delusion is suffering, being the cause of misery or suffering in itself.[2] You should know that the latter is conducive to the baneful. In this very life of a person engaged in violence and possessiveness, the baneful consequences like punishment, imprisonment etc. are visible.

3.3 samayaṃ logassa jāṇittā, ettha satthovarae.

Knowing the equality of all beings of the world, one should desist from the weapon of violence.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 3

Here 'world' means 'inmates of the world'. Perceiving the equality gf the inmates of the world, a monk, desists from weapons of injury. Whatever is instrumental to torture to creature is called a weapon of injury. A person of non-violent and non-possessive inclination naturally abstains from all sorts of injurious weapons. Here, in the context of non-violence, the word 'equality' stands for 'comparison with self in respect of suffering. In the context of non-possessiveness, it means 'balanced attitude in gain and loss, and the like'.

3.4 jassime saddā ya rūvā ya gaṃdhā ya rasā ya phāsā ya abhisamannāgayā bhavaṃti, se āyavaṃ nāṇavaṃ veyavaṃ dhammavaṃ baṃbhavaṃ.

One who has completely known the sensuous objects such as, sounds, colours, smells, tastes and touches — realizes the self, the knowledge, the scriptures, the doctrine and the discipline.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 4

The person in whose life non-possessiveness has been perfected realizes the self. The idea is: the sensual objects like sound etc. are material entities, while the nature of the self is spiritual. There are persons who have properly understood the nature of the sensual objects. In other words, through their intuitive comprehension, those objects are known to them as distinct from consciousness. They also know them (objects) as conditions of bondage of pleasure and pain. Those objects are known by him through comprehension quâ knowledge and comprehension quâ abandonment. Person of such comprehension realizes the self, the knowledge, the scripture, the doctrine and the discipline.

The present Sūtra propounds the principle of discrimination between the spiritual and the physical. The infatuation and temptation for possession originate due to the identification of the spiritual and the physical. Non-possessiveness matures on the experience of the discrimination between the two. On the maturation of such discrimination, the soul realizes itself. His knowledge is released from attachment to the sensual objects. In other words, the knowledge is freed from any kind of grasping. And therefore, it is only in such state that the soul attains perfect knowledge. 'Scripture' means the sacred lore which deals with the release from attachment and hatred. The soul attains the knowledge of the scriptures when the basic attachment to the physical world is destroyed. The essential character of the doctrine is the sense of equality. Such person remains evenly disposed to the covetable and the uncovetable sensual objects, and is thus established in the doctrine. 'Discipline' means right conduct, truthfulness and austerities. The aspirant is firmly established in them and so is designated as the 'attainer of the discipline'.

3.5 paṇṇāṇehiṃ pariyāṇai loyaṃ, muṇīti vacce, dhammaviutti aṃjū.

The person who comprehends the world by means of his wisdom is called monk. He is the knower of the nature of things and is straightforward.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sutra 5

One who comprehends the world through his discriminative wisdom is called a monk (a knower). He is conversant with the nature of things and is upright.[3] 'Nature of things' means nature of all substances. This character of the monk is indicative of his practice of analytic meditation. The person who analytically meditates on the nature of things comprehends the world as consisting of animate and inanimate things by means of his wisdom. By the comprehensive knowledge of the world, the intelligence about the unacceptable and acceptable becomes manifest. As a result, the aspirant becomes straightforward or devoted to what is good.[4]

    3.6 āvaṭṭasoe saṃgamabhijāṇati.

    The monk who realizes the self knows the clinging as the whirl and the stream.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 6

    Clinging is attachment. The monk recognizes the clinging as whirl and stream.
    'Whirl' means the agitation or fickleness of the mind due to the impulse of sensual affection.

    Stream is the enterance. In the Sthānāṅga (9.24) nine streams are mentioned: two ears, two eyes, two noses, the mouth, the genetic organ and the anus.[5] The stream includes also the senses. In the Āyāro (4.45), we find the mention of 'one entangled in the incoming stream' which means one entangled in the sensuous stream.

    It is explained in the Niśitha-Bhāṣya-Cūrṇi that attachment and clinging are synonymous. Or the state of the soul arising from the karma is attachment. The same attachment is called clinging, because it connects the soul with karma.[6]

      3.7 sīosiṇaccāī se niggaṃthe arai-rai-sahe pharusiyaṃ ṇo vedeti.

      The unbound monk enduring heat and cold does not experience any harshness while tolerating ennui and relish.

      Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 7

      'Cold'stands for favorable circumstances; 'heat'stands for adverse circum­stances. The person who tolerates[7] with equanimity both these conditions is the unbound monk enduring ennui and relish. He does not feel harshness anywhere. On account of the variety of experience even pleasure for non- restraint and displeasure for restraint may arise even in the mind of the aspirant. The person who can bear the two is not subjected to the experience of harshness. Nor does he regard the restraint as a burden,[8] nor does he generate a knot.[9]

        3.8 jāgara-verovarae vīre.

        The wakeful and one free from enmity is the hero.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 8

        One who is wide-awake and above enmity is valourous indeed. Here two defining characteristics of the valourous person are propounded. A person in sleep does not give any special inspiration and so he is not a hero. A person with an inimical disposition towards living creature is also not a valourous person. Violence and possessiveness function as the cause of enmity. A person not desisting from these two dispositions cannot give any kind of inspiration to any body. Therefore awakefulness and friendliness are the two defining characteri-stics of a valourous person.

        3.9 evaṃ dukkhā pamokkhasi.

        And thus you will get rid of suffering.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sutra 9

        Thus, by means of wakefulness and the resulting friendliness, it is possible to get freed from misery and suffering. A person in slumber of delusion is an enemy of all living creatures. Such a person generates an unending chain of misery. He is not emancipated from the chain. Therefore, the state of wakefulness is very much worthy of practice. In the presence of wakefulness, a person does not indulge in violence and possessiveness.

        3.10 jarāmaccuvasovaṇīe ṇare, sayayaṃ muḍhe dhammaṃ ṇābhijāṇati.

        The person under the sway of old age, death and constant delusion does not know the doctrine.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 10

        Such person is constantly in the clutches of old age and death. Even then he always lives in stupor and delusion. He does not understand the doctrine which is the condition of the destruction of karma. He has indeed no power of right comprehension.

        3.11 pāsiya āure pāṇe, appamatto pariwae.

        Looking at the people in anguish, the wakeful one always remains vigilant.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 11

        The wakeful person, perceiving the spiritually sleeping fellow-beings miserably overwhelmed by physical and mental agonies, or perceiving the lustful or the fear-stricken people, ever remains vigilant i.e., wakeful.

        3.12 maṃtā eyaṃ maimaṃ! Pāsa

        O intelligent person, look thoughtfully.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 12

        These are pitfalls for the person who is spiritually asleep. Seeing this, O intelligent person! You should realize that sleep is harmful and wakefulness is beneficial (for spiritual progress).

        3.13 āraṃbhajaṃ dukkhamiṇaṃ ti naccā.

        Having known that suffering is due to acts of violence, (you should practice to ever remain wakeful).

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 13

        A ‘violent’ act means non-restraint or any kind of activity due to violence and the like. ‘Whatever misery there is in this world is due to violence’— appreciating this, you should free yourself from all acts of violence and practise religious vigilance.

        3.14 māī pamāī puṇarei gabbhaṃ.

        The deceitful and the non-vigilant transmigrates again and again.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 14

        The realization of immortality is the consummation of religious life. In such state, a person is freed from birth and death. The cessation of the old and resumption of the new body is worldly life. The cycle of repeated birth and death continues in this way.

        The Sūtra here defines the condition of rebirth: the deceitful and the non-vigilant is subjected to repeated transmigration. The deceitful has his mind infected by sensual objects and passions. His dispositions are never purified. The non-vigilant cannot act in a right way. He is consequently involved in repeated rebirth. A person who is subject to birth is necessarily subject to death.

        3.15 uvehamāṇo sadda-rūvesu aṃju, mārābhisaṃkī maraṇā pamuccati.

        The monk who is indifferent to sounds and colours is upright. One who is ever alert to death is liberated from it.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 15

        A person who is indifferent to sensuous objects like sound and colour is freed from anguish. He does not have attachment and aversion to desirable and undesirable objects. He does not strive for them in the least. He becomes simple and straightforward on account of the indifference that is tantamount to lack of indulgence. Such person is released from death as he always finds himself alert to it. In other words, he attains immortality. Fear of death is an important means to immortality.

        3.16 appamatto kāmehiṃ, uvarato pāvakammehiṃ, vīre āyagutte je kheyaṇṇe.

        The enlightened person who is wakeful to desires desists from unrestrained activity, is valorous and self-absorbed.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 16

        The person conversant with the nature of the psycho-physical apparatus achieves immortality by his own effort. Psychophysical apparatus means the body, desires, sensual objects, violence and activity of thought, speech and body.[10] The person who knows all this is the knower of the apparatus. He is wakeful to his desires; he abstains from evil actions such as violence and the like. He is valorous on account of his valour of self-restraint; he is self-absorbed being guarded in thought, word and deed.

        3.17 je pajjavajāya-satthassa kheyaṇṇe, se asatthassa kheyaṇṇe, je asatthassa kheyaṇṇe, se pajjavajāya-satthassa kheyaṇṇe.

        The monk who is enlightened with respect to non-restraint (weapon) about the modes of sensuous objects is conversant with self-restraint (non-weapon). One who knows self-restraint is conversant with non- restaint that occurs about different modes of sensuous objects.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 17

        Indulgence in the sensuous objects such as sound, colour and the like is non-restraint; while abstinence from them is restraint. Both these should be comprehended. The various modes of the sensuous objects destroy the wakefulness. They are thus the weapons of injury. Subjugation of them is non-weapon. The person who is conversant with the various modes of the weapons constituting non-restraint, is also conversant with the non-weapons or restraint. The person who understands the nature of non-weapons is also conversant with the modes of the weapons. The idea is, so long as the nature of non-restraint is not known, it is impossible to know the nature of restraint. Similarly, so long as the nature of self-restraint is not known, the nature of non-restraint is also not properly known. The knowledge of either depends on the other. This order of evolution (of self-restraint) finds lucid expression in the following verses:[11]

        The gradual growth of the excellent truth in the consciousness is accompanied by the gradual distaste for sensuous objects howsoever easily accessible; and conversely the growth of distaste for sensuous objects, howsoever easily accessible, is accompanied by the gradual growth of the excellent truth in the consciousness.

        3.18 akammassa vavahāro na vijjai.

        There is no designation for the soul freed from the karma.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 18

        On the elimination of the karma, the person becomes free from karma. A person freed from karma has no designation. ‘Designation’ means naming or division, e.g., the hellish being, animals, men, gods; similarly child, boy, youth and aged; such and such by name, such and such by lineage.

        The person possessed of karma has designation. This is indicated in the Sūtra that follows.

        3.19 kammuṇā uvāhī jāyai.

        The adjunct is produced by karma.

        Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 19

        The meaning of adjunct[12] is denoting, naming or oonnoting. The adjunct is due to karma. For instance, the designations like happy, unhappy, energetic, depressed, etc., are due to karma.[13]

          3.20 kammaṃ ca paḍilehāe.

          Ponder over the function of karma.

          Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 20

          The karma produces adjunct; therefore, the karma should be examined and erased. The bondage is due to karma. The bondage consists of category, duration, intensity and mass. By the investigation of bondage, a proper understanding of the karmic chain is attained. As a result, it is comprehended that —

          3.21 kammamūlaṃ ca jaṃ chaṇaṃ.

          Karma is the root of violence.

          Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 21

          Violence is killing. Karma is the root of violence. The root of violence is investigated in the conditions of environment, chemical hormones and the like, but the root cause of violence is karma. The karma whose rising makes the soul indulge in violence is called the "source of injury to life."

          3.22 paḍilehiya savvaṃ[14] samāyāya.

          Pondering over the karma one should accept this truth.

          Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 22

          After examining the karma in the aforesaid manner, one should accept the absolute truth that attachment and hatred are the root cause of karma.

          On the acceptance of the truth —

            3.23 dohiṃ aṃtehiṃ adissamāṇe.

            The detached person is not found as affected by attachment and hatred.

            Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 23

            A person has twofold character — character dominated by attachment, character dominated by hatred. A person dominated by attachment is known by his attachment, a person dominated by hatred is known by his hatred. A detached person is not affected by either of the two. His activities are not due to either attachment or hatred. And therefore he is not markable by these two natures.[15]

            3.24 taṃ pariṇṇāya mehāvī.

            The intelligent should comprehend this.

            Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 24

            The state of stupor leads to evil, the state of wakefulness to good. Comprehending this, an intelligent person strives for wakefulness or getting rid of attachment and hatred.

            3.25 vidittā logaṃ, vaṃtā logasaṇṇaṃ se maiyaṃ parakkamejjāsi.— tti bemi.

            The intelligent monk should know the 'world' of sensuous objects, and give up the 'world instinct9 and should strive in self-restraint. — Thus do I say.

            Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 25

            An intelligent person strives for wakefulness. For this purpose, it is necessary to appreciate the nature of the world (of passions), and to abandon the worldly instinct. So long as there is no right discrimination about the world of passions and their fruition, one cannot strive in the right direction. So long as the worldly instinct, that is, the popular proneness towards the sensual objects, is not given up, how can there be any attempt at wakefulness?[16 ]

            Footnotes:
            [1]
            [2]
            [3]
            [4]
            [5]
            [6]
            [7]
            [8]
            [9]
            [10]
            [11]
            [12]
            [13]
            [14]
            [15]
            [16]

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            Publishers:
            Jain Vishwa Bharati

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