Acharanga Bhasyam ► Chapter III — Endurance Of Cold And Hot ► Section — 3 ► Sūtras 51-70 : The Spiritual World

Posted: 03.01.2011

3.51 saṃdhiṃ logassa jāṇittā.

All beings intend to live. Knowing the intention, one should not be non-vigilant.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 51

Here the Sanskrit equivalent of intention is 'sandhi'. All creatures desire to live and none to die. This is the intention of the entire world, i.e., entire range of living beings. Knowing this, one should not succumb to non- vigilance. This is first and foremost condition of abstinence from violence.

3.52 āyao bahiyā pāsa.

Consider all other beings as thyself.

Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 52

You should consider the external world, i.e., the world of living creatures, other than yourself like your own self. Just as suffering is not covetable to yourself, even so it is not liked by any other creature. This understanding is the second condition of abstinence from violence.

3.53 tamhā ṇa haṃtā ṇa vighāyae.

Therefore, you should not kill them yourself, nor get them killed by others.

Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 53

Comprehending the aforesaid two reasons, one should neither kill any creature himself nor get them killed by others.

3.54 jamiṇaṃ aṇṇamaṇṇāvitigicchāe paḍilehāeṇna karei pāvaṃ kaṃmaṃ, kiṃ tattha muṇī kāraṇaṃ siyā?

Is it due to his wisdom that a person does not indulge in evil karma out of doubt (of being marked by other) or as openly seen by others.

Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 54

Non-commission of sinful act is due to two reasons : (1) spiritual knowledge and (2) mutual doubt. 'Doubt' means suspicion, fear or shame. Sometimes a person does not commit on evil deed on account of mutual doubt or on account of inspection by others, that is, the suspicion about others looking at this evil karma. Should a wise person be instrumental in such act? To this rhetorical question, the answer is: if a monk is instrumental to not indulging in an evil karma due to doubt, he is not a genuine monk. The implication is that such abstinence is not due to spiritual knowledge.

3.55 samayaṃ tatthuvehāe, appāṇaṃ vippasāyae.

By practising equanimity one experiences the lucidity of the soul.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 55

Non-commission of an evil deed on account of the attitude[1] of equanimity sould be an inspiration to the monk. Abstinence from evil deeds due to equanimity is effected by spiritual knowledge. 'Equanimity' means the uniform attitude. It may also mean a some sort of activity in the presence or absence of others. This is laid down in the Daśavaikālika Sūtra (4, sūtra 18)[2]: 'in day or in night, alone or in assembly, sleeping or awake, who avoids the inflows of violence and the like', whether marked or not marked by others, derives a special kind of spiritual bliss. The person who does one thinking in the presence and otherwise in the absence of others gets his mind polluted on account of deceitful behaviour. How can there be placidity in such soul?

'Equanimity' may also mean absence of fluctuation; when there is no fluctuation of the nature of attachment and hatred, equanimity grows. In such state, there results self-placidity or enlightenment pertaining to truth.[3] This is also confirmed by the Uttarādhyayana Sūtra:[4] "For a person established in equality, currents of thoughts and counter-thoughts cease to occur. And in the person who is freed from thoughts and counter-thoughts the craving for sensual objects is destroyed. The person who is free from attachment and has done what he should have done destroys his knowledge- obscuring karma instantaneously. Similarly, he also destroys the intuition- covering karma and the obstructive karma too."

    3.56 aṇaṇṇaparamaṃ nāṇī, ṇo pamāe kayāi vi.
     āyagutte sayā vīre, jāyāmāyāe jāvae..

    The wise should never be non-vigilant with respect to the highest good. The self-guarded monk should always be enthusiastic in spiritual discipline and maintain his life on limited diet.

    Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 56

    The words "a person of unique vision" (2.173) and "a person of supreme vision" (3.38) have been mentioned before. Here the expression "Uniquely supreme" is used. The "Uniquely supreme" means what has no superior than itself. It stands for 'self-restraint' or 'equanimity'. A wise person should never be non-vigilant in respect of it. In the practice of self-restraint, the importance of energy is as great as that of knowledge. It has, therefore, been said that, the valiant should apply his energy to conquering the mind, speech and body and also alimentary intake that produces non-vigilance. In other words, he should protect himself against such intakes. Here 'self'[5] means the body, the speech and the mind against which he should guard himself. The discrimination of alimentary intake is a great necessity for such protection.

    Livelihood means the livelihood characterized by self-restraint. For the maintenance of his restrained livelihood he should maintain his body with quantity of food that is necessary for sustenance. Protection is not possible by means of too fatty or too massive alimentary intake. The maintenance of body is impossible with alimentary consumption. Therefore, the diet should be controlled in order that there did not occur the excitement due to sensuous objects. The diet should be regulated in order to maintain the body as instrumental to the practise of self-restraint for a long time.

    3.57 virāgaṃ rūvehiṃ gacchejjā, mahayā khuḍḍaehi vā.

    One should practice detachment from all sorts of sensual objects — small or big.

    Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 57

    Detachment is the means to self-guarding which is to stop even of the right activity of the body, speech and mind. It has, therefore, been enjoined that one should be detached from the sensual objects. The sensual objects consist of colour, taste, etc. Among them, the colour is most alluring and therefore the Sanskrit word ’rūpa' meaning colour has been used in the Sūtra to denote all sensual objects. Sensual objects may be big or small. The Nāgārjunīya school has explained it as follows: "Each of the two divisions of the five sensual objects is threefold. Properly knowing them in the true sense, one does not cling to any of the two catagories."[6]

    The sound and the like are the five objects of the senses. They fall into two categories viz., the covetable and the uncovetable. The objects of each of these categories are threefold viz., mean, medium and superior. One should be dispassionate to them.

    'Dispassion' means disinterest or indifference. By means of the practice of perceiving the demerits of the sensual objects, the cravingless mind becomes disgusted with worldly life. The spiritual mastery arising out of such disgust[7] is detachment. This is explained in the following dialogue in the Uttarādhyayana Sūtra (29.3):[8]

    "What does the soul produce by means of disgust for worldly life, O Lord?"

    "By practising it one spontaneously develops disgust for all sensual enjoyments — celestial, human or animal. As a result, he becomes indifferent to all sensual objects."

      3.58 āgatiṃ gatiṃ pariṇṇāya,
      dohiṃ vi aṃtehiṃ adissamāṇe.
       se ṇa chijjaiṇna bhijjai ṇa ḍajjhai,
      ṇna hammai kaṃcaṇaṃ savvaloe..

      Comprehending both birth and death, he keeps away from both the ends, namely, attachment and hatred. Such soul is neither cut, nor split, nor burnt, not struck by anyone in the whole world.

      Bhā ṣyaṃ  Sūtra 58

      The chief support to detachment consists in the comprehension of the transmigration (consisting of birth and death) of the soul. The person who comprehends these two is found to be aloof from both the ends viz., attachment and hatred. He is no more found under the sway of attachment and hatred. Such an ascetic is not amenable to the effects of mutilation, vulnerability, incineration, or decapitation. From the mundane standpoint, he cannot be multilated by weapons while living in this body inasmuch as he is free from attachment and hatred. From the supramundane standpoint, in the state of disembodied emancipation, the soul is not susceptible of mutilation, vulnerability, incineration or decapitation.[9]

      3.59 avareṇa puvvaṃ ṇa saraṃti ege,
       kimassatitaṃ? kiṃ vāgamissaṃ?
      bhāsaṃti ege iha māṇavā u,
      jamassatītaṃ āgamissaṃ..

      Some people do not care for the future and the past, such as what was his past, what will be his future? Some people say that one's future will be exactly like his past.

      Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 59

      Some aspirants are not aware of the future and the past. They are unable to  link the past with the future on account of their mind being overwhelmed with attachment and hatred.

      Some people opine that a person's future will be just like his past.

      3.60 ṇātītamaṭṭhaṃ ṇaya āgamissaṃ,
      aṭṭhaṃ niyacchaṃti tahāgayā u.
       vidhūta-kappe eyāṇupassī,
      ṇijjhosaittā khavage mahesῑ.

      The Jinas do not look to the past or the future. The great sage, practising the discipline of shaking the karma-body, visualizes only the present. He purges his karma-body and eliminates it.

      Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 60

      The perfect ones do not stick to the past and future objects. The great sage, practising the discipline of shaking the karma-body[10] sees the things as they are at the present moment and thereby desiccate the karma-body to eliminate it.

      The modes of the soul and the karmic predispositions persist through the three periods of time. Does the past mode, in such case control the future one? or, is the future mode completely independent of the past one? On this subject, there is a doctrine that the future is determined by the past. In this view, the past mind under the influence of attachment will experience the same attachment in the future. But the Jinas do not agree to this view. According to them, on account of the unique novelty of the transformation, the future does not exactly resemble the past but is also dissimilar to it. This explains the necessity of the discipline of shaking the karma-body. Had the future been completely determined by the past, there would be no means to the destruction of the past dispositions and instincts.[11]

        3.61 kā araī? ke āṇaṃde? etthaṃpi aggahe care.
         savvaṃ hāsaṃ pariccajja, ālīṇa-gutto pariwae.
        .

        For the practiser of discipline, what is discontent and what is pleasure? He should not be subject to either. Giving up all gaiety, conquering all senses and guarded in thought, word and deed, he should lead the life of discipline.

        Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 61

        The discontent or disgust is a mental attitude produced by the non- acquisition of the desired objects or annihilation of it. The pleasure is a mental attitude born of the acquisition of the desired objects. When, on some account, there arises the discontent, one should contemplate "What is this disgust?" or "Such disgust did arise infinite times in the past." By means of such pondering, he should purge his mind of it. Similarly on the acquisition of the desired objects he should ponder: "What is pleasure?" or "Such pleasure was acquired infinite time, in the past." By means of such pondering, he should purge his mind of it. Meditating on such predicament, the monk should dwell free from any sort of prepossession. In other words, he should not have any clinging to or speculation about the discontent or the pleasure. He should give up all gaiety. Conquering and guarding are varieties of inhibition.

        3.62 purisā! tumameva tumaṃ mittaṃ, kiṃ bahiyā mittamicchasi?

        O man! thou art thy own friend. Why do you search for a friend in the external world?.

        Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 62

        While leading the life of discipline a person may sometimes have reminiscences of past acquaintances, or he may have a desire for friend on account of his being tortured by his foes. This Sūtra is a spiritual support in such situation: "O man! you yourself are your friend. The vigilant self alone is your friend. Why do you seek a friend outside?" The external friend or foe is only concerned from the popular point of view. The present Sūtra is an enunciation from the ultimate standpoint. The implication is: You should be vigilant and self-aware, do not while away the time in search of an external friend.

        3.63 jaṃ jāṇejjā uccālaiyaṃ, taṃ jāṇejjā dūrālaiyaṃ.
        jaṃ jāṇejjā dūrālaiyaṃ, taṃ jāṇejjā uccālaiyaṃ..

        Whom you know as devoted to the highest good, him you should know as devoted to what is far away from sensual desires. Whom you know to be far away from sensual desires, him you should know as devoted to the highest good.

        Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 63

        The person who lives above the sphere of friend and foe does indeed dwell in a higher sphere.[12] Such person is aloof from the feelings, favourable and unfavourable, and as such, is said to dwell in a far-off-region. The dwelling in a higher sphere is indicative of dwelling in a far-off-region and vice- versa.

          3.64 purisā! attāṇameva abhiṇigijjha, evaṃ dukkhā pamokkhasi.

          O man! restrain thy own self. Thus thou wilt get freed from suffering.

          Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 64

          'Self’ means soul. O man! you should restrain your own soul which is attached to the pleasurable feeling and averse to the painful one. In this way, you will be free from suffering.[13] Suffering arises from the pleasurable and painful feelings. The person who subdues his feelings does easily get rid of suffering.[14]

            3.65 purisā! saccameva samabhijāṇāhi.

            O man! you should cultivate only the truth.

            Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 65

            In order to answer the query about the means to self-subdual the Sūtra says: O man! thou should cultivate the truth alone. The truth[15] means the real nature of the worldly objects. Until and unless the truth is properly known, there cannot be release from the clinging to pleasurable and painful feelings arising from worldly objects. A person can subdue his self only by comprehending the pitfalls and retributions through the analytical meditation consisting of contemplation on the evil dispositions and the karmic results.

              3.66 saccassa āṇāe uvaṭṭhie se mehāvī māraṃ tarati.

              The intelligent monk who is loyal to the truth crosses the domain of death.

              Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 66

              The aspirant who is alert to the truth i.e., injunction of the scriptures[16] is wise enough to cross the domain of death. 'Injunction' means the scripture, the insight, the discriminative knowledge of the subtle truth. 'Death' means — 'end of life'[17] or 'twofold lust', viz., lust quâ desires, lust quâ cupidity. Due to submission to the untruth, infatuation or illusion is nourished, leading to the production of lust. By the very means of alertness to the commandment of the scriptures, it is possible to bring an end to the lust.

                3.67 sahie dhammamādāya, seyaṃ samaṇupassati.

                The tolerant aspirant practising the discipline realizes the highest good.

                Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 67

                'Tolerant'[18] means habitually enduring. The aspirant who tolerates the favourable and the unfavourable situations can achieve the summum bonum by following righteousness (dharma). However, the person who is infatuated by the mundane fortune can never get an insight into the summum bonum. The summum bonum[19] means the supersensuous and the transcendental bliss, welfare or well-being. Says the Daśavaikālika (4/gāthā 11):

                "By listening to the scripture, one knows the good, one knows the evil, and one knows both. Having known the commandment of the scripture, one should practise what is conducive to the summum bonum."[20]

                  3.68 duhao jīviyassa, parivaṃdaṇa-māṇaṇa-pūyaṇāe, jaṃsi ege pamādeṃti.

                  Under the sway of attachment and hatred, a person strives for survival, praise, reverence and honour. Even some aspirants subject themselves to non-vigilance for achieving these ends.

                  Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 68

                  People, overwhelmed by attachment and aversion, are stupefied for the sake of present life and fame, honour and self-glorification (see 1.21). But some people are found negligent on account of intolerance, even after adopting the life of renunciation.

                  3.69 sahie dukkhamattāe puṭṭho ṇo jhaṃjhāe.

                  The tolerant aspirant being touched by suffering should not get agitated.

                  Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 69

                  The tolerant monk touched by pangs of suffering, that is, tortured by the afflictions of twins like cold (favourable conditions) and heat (unfavourable conditions) should not get disturbed or agitated in mind, unlike (a tree) tossed by storm. The storm of attachment is raised due to affliction caused by cold (and the like) and the storm of aversion on account of heat (and the like). Avoiding both these types of agitation, one should make himself tenacious in equanimity.

                  3.70 pāsimaṃ davie loyāloya-pavaṃcāo muccai. — tti bemi.

                  The competent monk of right vision is liberated from the apparent maze of the world and the non-world. — Thus do I say.

                  Bhāṣyaṃ  Sūtra 70

                  The person who has developed the insight to tolerating the afflictions of (twins like) cold and heat is a man of insight[21] and worthy of respect due to his being unmoved by attachment and aversion. He is capable of being freed from the labyrinth of this world and the world hereafter.[22] Here 'world' means the visible world and 'non-world' means the invisible world or the apparent world. The 'labyrinth' stands for the snare of bondage. The persoii worthy of respect is freed from the entanglement of the visible worldly relations and the invisible karmic bondage.

                  Footnotes:
                  [1]
                  [2]
                  [3]
                  [4]
                  [5]
                  [6]
                  [7]
                  [8]
                  [9]
                  [10]
                  [11]
                  [12]
                  [13]
                  [14]
                  [15]
                  [16]
                  [17]
                  [18]
                  [19]
                  [20]
                  [21]
                  [22]

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