Neuroscience and Karma ► Glossary ► D. Terms Related with Endocrine Glands ► Hormones

Posted: 16.07.2015

Endocrine System:

One of the two control-systems of the body. Endocrine glands secrete chemical regulators called hormones, directly into the blood-stream or the lymphatic fluid. They regulate metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Working intimately with the nervous system, they integrate the responses of diverse organs and tissues of the body to internal and external stimuli.


Chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid etc.) and providing signals to the target-organs sensitive to it. Hormones have profound influence on the mental states and behavioral patterns of an individual.


An endocrine gland situated above the Kidney. Its outer part (cortex) produces steroid hormones such as cortisone, which influence many bodily activities and are essential for survival. The inner part (medulla) produces adrenaline, which prepares the body for attack or defence.


A catecholamine, secreted as a hormone by the adrenal medulla, acts as a transmitter at many synapses. Noradrenaline is a modified derivative.


One of the hormones produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland.


Sex-glands; ovaries in females; testes in males.

Gonadotropic Hormones:

Secretions of the pituitary gland serving as signals that activate gonads, e.g. follicle stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).


An amine secreted by the pineal gland.


Secreted by adrenal as well as some special nerves and used as a transmitter; related to adrenalin.


A small cone-shaped endocrine gland in the brain; produces melatonin that inhibits sexual development and so may be responsible for the long period of childhood in humans.

Pituitary (Hypophysis):

The body's "master gland". It lies close to the hypothalamus by which it is controlled. It produces tropic hormones which activate or inhibit the activities of the other glands. Hence, it is called, the conductor of the endocrine orchestra. It regulates numerous metabolic processes such as growth and reproduction.


An indoleamine used as a transmitter by some synapses involved in the program of sleeping, etc.; can also inhabit aggression.

Sex hormones:

They are produced by the gonads under the influence of the pituitary. They control the physical as well as behavioural characters of the sexes. The male hormones are androgens, the female oestrogens and progesterone, but both sexes produce all sorts, in different proportions.


The male sex hormone, produced by the testis and causing the development of masculine characters.

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