Neuroscience and Karma ► Glossary ► C. Terms Related with Computer and Program

Posted: 15.07.2015

Computer:

An artificial device for processing information. In a digital computer, a code is used to represent the information in such a form that the machine can perform the operations indicated by the program supplied by its user. Using a binary code, the program (algorithm) operates by making decisions between 0 and 1 at the rate of 1 billion per second.

Algorithm:

A program by which a complicated calculation is reduced to a long series of simple ones that a digital computer can perform.

Artificial Intelligence:

The making of computer programs in machines that imitate human intelligence. (Robots can recognize and select parts and assemble them).

Binary Code:

Expressing numbers using 0s and Is only. Thus 1 = 1, 2= 10,3 = 11,9= 1001. This allows mechanical devices to calculate very quickly.

Bit:

Short for 'binary digit', the unit that represents a single yes/no decision, hence the basic unit of information.

Code:

A set of visible signs, sounds or other physical events adopted to form a system of communication of messages.

Computer Memory:

Information is stored by altering the states of a large set of mechanical or electrical devices usually by on/off switching. The 'meaning' of the information at the address of each point thus depends on the program arranged by the operator.

Computer Program:

A list of signs in some language which causes the computer to carry out a logical sequence of calculation to answer a question relating to the real world, which the program represents by means of algorithm.

Communication:

The interaction between systems or parts of a system using a prearranged code.

Concept:

The learned program for the use of word or set of words i.e. its meaning.

Digital:

A system of coding, using only a few clearly defined signs, usually only two - indicating presence or absence, 0 and 1.

Hardware:

The actual material of a computer. See, Software.

Hard-wired:

Programs incorporated into the structure of a computer and therefore not variable by the software program. In the body, reflexes are hard-wired and so are other connections formed by heredity and not subject to modification by learning.

Program:

A set of code-signs that indicates the actions to be performed by a living system or artifact (e.g. computer) in order to achieve its purpose.

Software:

The programs devised to make the hardware of a computer solve the problems set by the user.

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