Neuroscience and Karma: Glossary of Sanskrit/Prakrit Words

Published: 18.07.2015
Updated: 22.07.2015

Terms Related with Jain Philosophy


Period of inactivity during which karman remains inactive after bondage. (See, sattā)


One of the six eternal substances; medium of rest, (see dharmāstikāya).

Aghātin Karman:

Types of karman that do not obscure any fundamen­tal quality of the soul.


Space; one of six eternal substances that contains all other substances.

Anantānubandhin (Kaṣāya):

Most virulent type of passion-quartet which are sub-species of deluding (Mohanīya) karman, that leads to endless worldly existence by destroying the right faith.

Antarāya Karman:

Energy-obstructing karman - one of the eight main species of karman that obstructs the spiritual energy.

Anubhāga (bandha):

Intensity of fruition of karman determined at the instant of bondage but amenable to change by particular potency of soul.

Apratyākhyānin (Kaṣāya):

Type of passion-quartet that is less virulent than the most virulent type; inhibits the aptitude even for partial renun­ciation; sub-species of deluding (mohanīya) karman.


Attenuation of the duration (sthiti) and intensity of fruition (anubhāga) of karman after the bondage; also see udvartanā; sankramaṇa.

Aśātā Vednīya Karman:

One of the two sub-species of feeling-producing (vednīya) karman that produces feeling of misery and suffering.

Audārika śarīra:

One of the five types of (gross or physical) bodies of the living organisms.

Āyuṣya Karman:

Life-span-determining karman; one of the eight main species of karman that determines the life-span of the organism.


Bondage; the process of intimate association of the soul with karma-pudgala; the soul under the influence of passions attracts karmic matter (karma-pudgala) which is then inseparably mixed up with it; the resultant state is bondage.


Speech; a vital function of some organisms; one of their three activities (yoga) which are also the cause of bondage. Also see manaḥ; śwasocchvāsa.

Bhāṣā Vargaṇā:

A group of material aggregates used for producing speech.


Absolute; the Ultimate Solitary Reality - single conscious element which pervades the entire universe according to the Vedanta philosophy.


Intuition or indeterminate cognition; one of the two inalien­able characteristics of the soul; the faculty of cognising reality without separation of contents; counterpart of knowledge, also see jñāna.

Darśanāvārṇa Karman:

Intuition-obscuring karman - one of the eight main species of karman that obscures 'darsana' which is one of the eight innate qualities of soul. Also see darśana, kevala darśana.


One of the six eternal substances; medium of motion, also see adharmāstikāya.


Substance. Six eternal/indestructible substances (dravyas) produce the infinite world processes through their modifications and interactions.

Ghatin karman:

Types of karman that obscure fundamental qualities of soul.


Those which are completely obscuring.


Those which are partially obscuring. Also see aghātin karman.

Gotra karman:

Status-determining karman - one of the eight main species of karman that determines the status and family conditions.


Quality or inalienable attribute of a substance.


One of the six eternal substances; only one that possesses consciousness; soul; individual self; the conscious constituent of a living organism.


Knowledge or determinate cognition; the faculty of cognising reality with separation of its contents; counterpart of intuition; also see darśana.

Jñānāvarṇa karman:

Knowledge-obscuring karman - one of the eight main species of karman that obscures jnana which is one of the eight innate qualities of soul.


Time; one of the six eternal substances.


  1. Threefold action or activity of a living organism viz.,
    1. mental,
    2. vocal
    3. physical or bodily action.
  2. Imperceptible transcendental effect resulting from thought, speech and bodily action; a potential psycho-physical force which is the cause of the worldly existence of soul; it obscures, vitiates and obstructs the eight inmate qualities of the soul through its eight main species.


Fruition of karman; karman rises from its hitherto supine state and manifests itself and gives its fruit (fructifies).

Kārmaṇa Vargaṇā:

Group of material aggregates capable of being attracted and transformed into karman by living organisms.

Kevala darśana, Kevala Jñāna:

The basic innate qualities of a soul in its purest natural state; pure and perfect intuition and knowledge; direct experience of the total reality without any contradiction or discrepancy; also see darśana, jñāna.


Passions; the principal armament of the psycho-physical force of karman for perpetuating its existence; it is the main cause of the bondage of new karman and continuation of the worldly existence of the soul, its four bold manifestation viz. angary, arrogance, deceit and greed are the sub-species of the deluding (mohanīya) karman.


(Total) Destruction of karman; one of the three states of non-fruition of karman.

Manuṣya Ayuṣya, Manuṣya Gati, Manuṣya Anupurvi:

These three sub-species of karman are the joint determinants which bestow the human state to the soul.


Destruction-cum-subsidence of karman; one of the three states of non-fruition of karman, applicable to four ghatin karman; permits partial manifestation of the innate qualities of soul; see also Kṣaya, Upaśama.


Group of material aggregates specifically used by living organisms for the process of thinking; also see Bhāṣā.


Nescience; perverted or false faith/attitude; predilection for untruth; opposite of samyakatva.

Mohanīya karman:

Deluding karman; one of the eight main species of karman; produces delusion - metaphysical and ethical;

    1. darśana mohanīya - prevents the innate ability of belief in truth and
    2. cāritra mohanīya - destroys equanimity of conduct.

Nāma karman:

Body-making karman - one of the eight main species of karman. It has a large number of sub-species, accounting for various forms of embodied existence of soul.


Ultimate indivisible unit of pudgalāstikāya i.e. physical order of existence. It is the ultimate cause of the physical existence; also see pudagalāstikāya; skandha.


Nature, type, or species of karman after bondage with soul.

Mūla Prakṛti:

There are eight main species (mūla prakṛti)

Uttara Prakṛti:

Mūla Prakṛtis are divided into many sub-types (uttara prakṛti).

Prakṛti Bandha:

Type-bondage; one of the four categories of bondage determining the type or species of the karman, at the time of bondage.

Pratyākhyānī (Kaṣāya):

One of the four types of passion-quartet. It is less virulent than apratyākhyānī and inhibits the aptitude for complete renunciation (ascetic life) but allows partial renunciation.


The physical order of existence. One of the six eternal substances that possesses senuous qualities and thus can be cognised by sense-organs.

Punya and Papa:

Auspicious or virtuous and inauspicious or sinful karman respectively. Fruition of the former results in physical pleasure and that of the latter, in suffering, physical as well as spiritual.


Right faith: predilection for truth; it is the innate charac­teristic of the soul, but it remains obscured by perversity (mithyātva) from eternity.


Process of transformation of one sub-type into another sub-type of the same main species of karman by an effort of the soul.

Sātā Vednīya:

One of the two sub-species of vednīya karman that produces feeling of pleasure; also see asātā vednīya.


Existence; inactive state of karman after bondage prior to the state of rise (udaya). (see, abādhākāla)


Aggregate or composite body. In the case of pudgala - the physical substance - ultimate atoms (paramānus) combine together to make skandhas. All visible perceptible objects are skandhas.

Sthiti Bandha:

Bondage of karman with respect to duration; one of the four categories of bondage determining duration of association of karman; it is determined at the instant of bondage but amendable to change by special potency of soul.

Sukha and Dukkha:

Physical happiness and misery; normally, results of punya and papa respectively, by the fruition of feeling-producing (vednīya) karman. Ātmika sukha (self-generated spiritual bliss) is, however, an innate quality of pure soul and is independent of anything external.


Breathing; a vital function which needs the help of a specific group of matter - śwasocchvāsa vargaṇā.


Fruition or rise of karman; the state of maturity and fructifica­tion of karman.


Premature fruition of karman forced by a strong effort of soul; precursor of the state of upśamana in the case of deluding (mohanīya) karman.


Enhancement of the duration (sthiti) and augmentation of the intensity of fruition (anubhāga) of karman after the bondage; also see apavartanā, saṁkramaṇa.


Subsidence of karman for a period less than 48 minutes (muhūrta). One of the three states of non-fruition of karman, applicable only to deluding (mohanīya) karman. It holds an important place in the soul's struggle for self-realization, see also kṣaya, kṣayopaśama.


Group or category, generally of different types of pudgala (physical substance). There are innumerable groups but a few ones are empirically useful to living organisms e.g. bodies are made from audārika group. Other groups are, bhāṣā, śwasocchvāsa, manaḥ, etc., useful for vital functions of the organism.

Vedniya karman:

Fearing producing karman; one of the eight main species of karman that is feeling-producing, it obstructs the natural bliss of the pure soul and produces earthly pleasures and pain/suffering. Virya: Psychical energy; it is necessary for the demolition of karman.

Ananta Virya:

The infinite energy which is inherent in the soul; it is obstructed by antarāya karman.


Title: Neuroscience and Karma
Jain Vishwa Bharati, Ladnun, India
Editor: Muni Mahendra Kumar
Edition: Second Edition, 1994

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Abādhākāla
  2. Adharmāstikāya
  3. Aghātin Karman
  4. Akāśāstikāya
  5. Ananta
  6. Ananta Virya
  7. Anantānubandhin
  8. Antarāya
  9. Anubhāga
  10. Apavartanā
  11. Apratyākhyānin
  12. Audārika śarīra
  13. Ayuṣya
  14. Aśātā Vednīya
  15. Bandha
  16. Bhāṣā
  17. Bhāṣā vargaṇā
  18. Body
  19. Brahman
  20. Consciousness
  21. Cāritra
  22. Darśana
  23. Darśanāvārṇa
  24. Deceit
  25. Dharmāstikāya
  26. Dravya
  27. Dravyas
  28. Dukkha
  29. Equanimity
  30. Gati
  31. Gotra
  32. Gotra karman
  33. Greed
  34. Guṇa
  35. Jain Philosophy
  36. Jnana
  37. Jñāna
  38. Jñānāvarṇa
  39. Karma-phala
  40. Karman
  41. Karmic matter
  42. Kaṣāya
  43. Kevala Darśana
  44. Kevala jñāna
  45. Ksayopaśama
  46. Kāla
  47. Kārmaṇa vargaṇā
  48. Kṣaya
  49. Kṣayopaśama
  50. Manaḥ
  51. Manuṣya
  52. Manuṣya anupurvi
  53. Mithyātva
  54. Mohanīya
  55. Mūla Prakṛti
  56. Nāma
  57. Papa
  58. Paramāṇu
  59. Prakṛti
  60. Prakṛti Bandha
  61. Pratyākhyānī
  62. Pudgala
  63. Pudgalāstikāya
  64. Punya
  65. Samyakatva
  66. Samyaktva
  67. Sankramaṇa
  68. Sarva-ghātin
  69. Sattā
  70. Saṁkramaṇa
  71. Skandha
  72. Soul
  73. Space
  74. Sthiti
  75. Sthiti Bandha
  76. Sukha
  77. Sātā Vednīya
  78. Udaya
  79. Udvartanā
  80. Udīraṇā
  81. Upaśama
  82. Upaśamana
  83. Vargaṇā
  84. Vedanta
  85. Vednīya
  86. Virya
  87. Yoga
  88. Ātmika Sukha
  89. Āyuṣya Karman
  90. Śwasocchvāsa
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