Fundamental Human Nature [in Jainism and Freudian Psychology]

Posted: 21.03.2013
Updated on: 30.07.2015

While Studying Human nature, philosophers as well as psychologists dived deep into the human behavior and tried to find out the basic components of human nature. Different philosophers and psychologists at different periods came up with discursive and divergent ideas. The study of them helps find out 'is there any underlying common thread that can help to understand the fundamental human nature with synthetic approach and build a bridge upon all complementary and contradictory ideas'. Sigmund Freud and Jainism both have their own significant conceptions regarding fundamental human nature. Jainism is an ancient philosophy and religion and Freud‟s theory is of modern age. Ancient approach to study man was synthetic. It perceived man as a whole. On the other hand, modern psychology is empiricist. It studies man on empirical and experimental ground. This paper is an honest effort to see how the branches emerged at distant spatial and temporal conditions approach to study the human nature and tried to find out whether there can be synthesis between the two. Secondly a popular question that is bounced at Freud, „can man come out distressful or conflicting situation or civilizational discontent‟, will also be tried to answer from ground of Jainism.

Freud’s View on Human Nature

Sigmund Freud (1857-1939) was the father of Psychoanalysis and one of the three savants of modern age. His insight about human nature and mind had a revolutionary effect on the modern world. Being a psycho-analyst, studied his hundreds of patients and a concept took shape in his mind that unconscious comprises the fundamental nature of man and is a great store of unfulfilled desires, unconscious wishes and impulses.[1] He also holds that these impulses are solely sexual by nature.[2] The sexuality of impulses he expresses with example, i.e. child‟s hugging and catching hold over his mother repeatedly. This tendency of child and its possessiveness towards mother. Freud's assumption of fundamental nature of human being is bio-psychological and psycho-sexual. Question is what creates these sexual wishes and emotions. Freud listed two diverse forces or energies present in unconscious mind and a generator of them called by name „libido‟. The two divergent energy called 'Eros' and 'Thanatos' are its functional aspects.[3] Eros is a love instinct and thanatos is commonly known on as death instinct. These two instincts are responsible for the agitation of emotion for the fulfillment of desires directly or indirectly. Hence they constitute (being presented as a prime motivator) the basic human nature.[4] Since they are ingrained in human nature, Human beings can never surpass them but can only repress them for some time. Freud holds that repressed desires which are basic units of our unconscious can never die out completely. It always remains busy in creating one or other desires that remain in unconscious mind always seeking a chance to get accomplished by hook and crook, if possible directly, if not indirectly. The indirect ways are dreams, slip of tongue, dreams etc. and other such unconscious activities.[5] Along with this he also strongly expressed that Religious institutes, which claim to liberate man from misery are all fake promises. Religion is a mass Opium.[6] He challenges the religious institutes and declares that religious institutes can never help man to get liberated.

Another fact that man is animated by two principles - Pleasure principle and Reality principle. Man seek pleasures which can be attained only by the fulfillment of desires but ego and super ego judge those desires and bars the unfit desires for society. Freud is of opinion that man while birth is born with primitive instincts. Man internalizes the outer customs, traditions, moral laws, social rules and regulations and gets illusioned believing that mask is his real face. His behavior is fashioned according to those societal patterns, and his basic wishes get repressed.[7] This repression, Freud calls as dangerous for both the society and the individual. A conflict is created in his self. This inherent qualities and internalized qualities both have a hold on the man. Being just opposite to each other, they create conflict in the man. The primitive mind wishes and the civilized mind dismiss. According to Freud, desires do not die out but they are settled down in unconscious mind layer by layer, years by years and finally „what we are‟ is determined by what our unconscious mind is made up of. Hence unconscious mind is the determinator of our fundamental nature.[8]

According to Freud, all the desires are sexual by nature and that sexual motivation is gained by the side the unconscious. Libido is the generator of desires, which has Eros and thanatos as its functional aspects.[9] Eros and thanatos are responsible for the agitation of emotions for the fulfillment of desires. Freud holds that repressed desires never die out completely. They always seek for a chance of fulfillment and only after the fulfillment, they turn away. By nature desires are generating continuously within man but society goes on banning for their fulfillment. This conflict goes on with in the mind of all the individuals. Freud called it as a civilization discontent.[10]

When we analyze this idea of Freud on the ground of our experience, we find a great contradiction here. Man in general aims for happiness that too of eternal type but Freud‟s declaration pushes the human being into the ditch of eternal unhappiness and sorrow. Why Freud was confirmed on this is–Human nature for Freud is basically cannibalistic, narcissistic and full or incestuous desires[11] and culture would never allow for the fulfillment of all such desires. It keeps control over individual. Since childhood man is trained to live according to societal commands and repress his own desires to the extent he can. This repression is the bone of contention. Each and every being in society is condemned to be in discontentment. The question here is shall we agree with this notion of Freud or can we can find some other way out so that human dignity can be saved. Anna Freud, Erich Fromm etc. are of opinion that human dignity must be saved. But how? If the works of Sigmund Freud and ancient scriptures of Jainism are kept in parallel and studied, they explore the human nature very differently. Although in both the branches of study the problem of distressful situation and the renunciation of wishes are most peculiar one. Let us turn to ancient Asian scriptures and especially Jain texts - āgama-s which can find out some voluntary way out to this problem.i.e. conflicting situation. The solution for the problem of liberation from repression can be in only two ways:

  1. Act for the fulfillment of the desires ignoring social norms or
  2. Renunciation of desires or wishful impulses completely as an alternative technique of the former external fulfillment.

Man being a social animal cannot go for first option because this can lead him to disastrous conditions putting his life itself in danger, punishment, social condemnation or excommunication. The only way left for him is Renunciation. Freud says renunciation is impossible. As he writes in his Civilization and its Discontent that “ Renunciation of the drives no longer has a fully liberating effect;….”[12] No institute including religious institutes can assist him for renunciation. To the most these institutes can provide temporary relief. “Every fresh renunciation reinforces its severity and intolerance…this renunciation creates the conscience that it demands further renunciation.”[13] He opines that Religion, although aims at subjugation or sublimation of desires etc. but no religion has empowered man to come out of this paradoxical situation. Religion is mass neurosis.

This view of Freud is to be re-read on the canonical ground of Jainism. The conflictual condition of human being is acceptable to Jaina view from one perspective. In worldly state, soul has all such conditions. Since a soul is passing from beginning less chain of births and deaths and collected infinite karmas. Due to that it suffers the fruition of those previously accumulated karmas. These fruition of karmas and suffering of its results in turn leads to bonding the new ones. This process is continued, until and unless one attains the liberation.[14] Freud studied the present life and talked about infantile desires. He did not go beyond that. He believed that they are inherited by our species i.e. species that we have descended from. Process of passing on the human traits is going on centuries after centuries. Jaina belief is that karma of an individual follows soul from one birth to another carrying all past impressions. Karma transmigrates with the soul and determines the nature and behavior of the person adhered with that particular soul.[15]

Freud was able to grant unconscious a capacity for remembering the repressed. Although Freud has said about sublimation, where desires can be fulfilled in any alternative way but the production of desires must be given an end to come out of distressful situation. There are two questions left to be dealt with here. Are all desires sexual by nature? Can there be a end to desires or way out to distressful state.

 

Jaina View of Human Nature

The Jaina view point is radically different at this primary assumption but on secondary level, may reconcile with or complement the Freud's idea. Jaina philosophy is spiritual philosophy. All the concepts theories are centered on the soul or self and aim of life is to achieve the total purity of the self. The Jaina concept of self can be understood in its belief in liberation which it defines as - Kṛtsnakarmaksyād atmaswarūpāvasthānaṁ mokṣaḥ[16] i.e. to attain the pure form of the self deleting all kinds of defilements (karma) from the self, is called as liberation. Here 'pure form' means the nature of the self. The basic text that deals with the explanation about the 'Self' profoundly is Samayasāra. The first chapter of it is completely dedicated to explain the very nature of the self. The very first verse of it is:

jīvo caritta-daṁsaṇa-ṇāṇaṭṭhido taṁ hi sasamayaṁ jāṇa
poggalakammapadesaṁṁhidaṁ ca taṁ jāṇa parasamayaṁ ||1/2||
[17]

„That soul which is totally absorbed in pure darśana (faith), jñāna (knowedge), and cāritra (conduct) is for sure to be known as the pure self.‟ While that one, which is engrossed in material hankering, must be known as impure self. Jīva is the real substance which is the nucleolus of the Jaina philosophy. Its inalienable characteristic is consciousness. In worldly existence soul is associated with various kinds of karma which obstructs the innate capabilities of the soul. The worldly existence is sustained by the perverted attitude and nourished by the desire/longing for the sensuous pleasures. As soon as the soul withdraws from the lure of this materialistic world, it attains its perfectly blissful state and overcomes all kinds of miseries and conflicts.[18]

In the preface of Ācārāṅga, it has been declared that 'Āyā atthi'[19] soul exists. There are seven predications made for the soul. One of them is soul has become subject to transmigration from one birth to other due to karma. It can be liberated from the vicious chain of birth and death.[20] The reason for birth and death is karma and karmas are unified with soul due to attachment and aversion. These two are products of moha (delusion) and this chain ultimately yields misery for the being. the whole chain is explained in a verse of Uttarajjhayaṇāṇi

"rāgo ya doso bi ya kammabīyaṁ,kammaṁ ca mohappabhavaṁ vayaṁti
kammaṁ ca jāi maraṇassa mūlaṁ,dukkhaṁ ca jāimaraṇanṁ uveṁti."
[21]

Rāga (attachment) and dveṣa (aversion) are the seeds of karma. Karma is emerged out of moha (delusion) and is the source of vicious chain of birth and death that cause miseries.

This shows that by nature soul is pure and blissful and due to karma all suffering and conflicts are created. Jaina philosophy holds soul is pure and neutral having no emotive agents. Only in mundane state, soul is in miserable condition and due to karma it has to undergo many conflicts.

Now, an effort can be made to see how these two branches of knowledge advocate the truth regarding the basics or foundation of human nature and a popular question on Freud 'Can man come out of distressful situation?' would be tried to answer according to Jaina view.

 

Analysis of Freud's View from Jaina Point of View

As the paradigm shifts, theories conceptions and outlooks also get shifted.

Differences and Similarities between Basic Concepts o f Freud and Jainism

S#

SUBJECT

FREUDIAN CONCEPT

JAINA CONCEPT

1

Human Nature

Psycho-biological

Spirituo-psychical

2

Desires

Is in the nature of self, cannot be controlled

Non-self, can be controlled

3

Basic instinct

Sex

Possession

4

Cause of Conflict

Repression

Mohaniya Karma

5

Primitive Mind

Cannibalistic, Narcissistic, incestuous

Contented

6

Religion

Opium, neurosis

Path to liberation

7

Civilization

Harmful

Not necessarily harmful

8

Dream of Innocence

True dreams

True dreams

From Freud's analytic point of view, desires or repressed desires cannot be renunciated but if we turn our eyes towards the Asian culture and philosophy the main purpose of religion is renunciation or liberation from the desires. Hence the whole practice of spirituality is based on the renunciation since it believes in such liberation from desires as the end of life. Although both the Freud and the Jainism believes in past impressions. Freud calls them as repressed desires and Jainism as karma (record of our past good or bad deeds). For Freud what unconscious mind is, that can be compared to the karma or kārmaṇa śarīra[22] of Jaina philosophy. Libido can be compared with Mohaniya karma, the main agent behind the production of desires. As Eros and thanatos are functional aspects of libido similarly raga and dvesa are two prominent aspects of Mohaniya karma.[23] This can be shown through a figure following:

On this basic assumption of it, both differ radically. For Freud, self is distressed and has no way to escape discontent unto death and for Jainas soul is basically pure and its pure form can be achieved by spiritual upliftment. Differing mainly on this point, further problems can be understood as where the path that blocks for Freud, is open for Jainism.

There are mainly two popular notions about inherentness of certain instincts or basic drives. John Locke is of opinion that “man is born as a clean slate (Tabula rasa) and impressions are given in due course of developments.”[24] Even Freud believes that social norms when gets internalized in one‟s nature, it forms the human nature and this internalization begins right from the infancy. Jainism believes in inbornness of instincts but this inbornness must not be equated with the very nature of a living being. Man has emotions right form prenatal age. There is a well known myth in Jaina scriptures. When Lord Mahāvīra was in the womb of his mother, he stopped moving his limbs out of compassion towards his mother so that she may not feel any kind of uneasiness due to his movement.[25] There are so many illustrations of such examples in Indian mythology. Jainism too believes that man inherits various saskāras or impressions from his previous birth. Hence internalization is not confined to one birth but it gets passed over to many births through karma and man is always in distress.

Secondly, 'man is in paradoxical situation' is also acceptable to Jainism since man‟s soul in mundane state is always accompanied by karma and the Self has to always be in conflict with karma. There is always a ambivalence between the erotic and ascetic state. It can also be understood under two phases of karma i.e. audayika and kśāyopasamika.[26] Audayika means when karma is in fruition i.e. result yielding state. Man's emotions grow intense in this state and during the kśayasamika state of soul, the state of equanimity flourishes and the rise of karma has little effect on the man.[27] Hence the audayika bhāva (state) can be compared with erotic state of mind and kśāyopasamika bhāva (state) of soul can be equated with the ascetic state of the mind. They are always in conflict on the ground of soul. When Erotic or audayika state empowers, man‟s instincts becomes devilish and when ascetic or kśāyopasamika state awakens, divine qualities flourish in the personality. Since Freud had no concept of karma he didn't go beyond his empirical assessment and what is said by him was correct in his system of study. Jaina philosophy has a widely explained karma theory and believes in passionless, desireless and conflictless state in a of soul in its pure substancehood. All conflicts are with soul in mundane state due to karma. They are with soul since the time immemorial and there is no beginning of their relation, still they are not the part and parcel of the soul. They are external things internalized and this internalization is not forever.[28]* There is an end to those karmas. In Karma Prakṛti, it is said as as gold or any other metal in a crude or ore exist since eternal times but they can be taken apart forever. Similarly even karmas can be departed from the self.[29] Individual karmas yield their good or bad results and move away from the soul after a certain duration of time and newer karma always keep incoming and get attached with the soul. Hence, each karma has an end but the chain of karma has no end in worldly state. If that chain is put to end through rigorous spiritual practices then liberation from all karmas is possible. This is state where there is no emergence of desires occurs. The way out to civilizational discontent. Anyhow, we can compare both the theories as shown in the figure.

http://www.herenow4u.net/fileadmin/v3media/pics/persons/Samani_Ramaniya_Pragya/ASPECTS_OF_HUMAN_NATURE.jpg

Jaina texts have practical ways for this. Although it is quite a difficult path and demands a hard control over physical, mental and vocal activities (austerities) still there is a way.

Religion and spirituality are not one and the same. Religion is only a cover or a designation but the inner essence, the hidden truth behind the curtain of different religions is spirituality. According to Uttaradhyayana Sūtra, it is written religion has two faces:

1. Superstitions, mystical, mythical or magical face,
2. Purely spiritual face.[30]

Freud's concept of religion seems to be of first type and he missed or misunderstood or misinterpreted the other and called the religion „Mass neurosis‟, „opium‟[31] etc. Here it is clearly differentiating the mystical from spiritual one. Mystic experiences in spirituality and mystical things that are adhered to religion are two different things. From this point of Jaina religion or other religions of Asia can never be called as mass neurosis or opium. It is a path or self-realizationIt is a pure path destined to attain the ultimate goal-eternal joy, eternal bliss (avyābādha sukha). In Uttaradhyayana Sūtra, there is a illustration of two kinds of desires:

1. Icchā Kāma
2. Madana Kāma

i.e. non sexual desires and sexual desires.[32]

There is an empirical experience of non-sexual desires. All the desires cannot be tuned down to sexual ones. Child affection towards his mother is a kind of love but not held as sexual type. A child is pure in his mind that is why a child is worshipped and called by the name of god and virgin worship (kumāripuja) is practically celebrated in Asian countries and cultures. A child desires but it is not of sexual type i.e. madana kāma but it is icchā kāma, asexual or simple desire. Now the question is how we can come out of such paradoxical situation as Freud states.

 

Spiritual Solution to Distressful Situation

Whether it be possession or sex, the bone of contention is desire. Worldly man is desirous. In Ācārāṅga very lucid explanation regarding desires is found. First of all, it quotes that

"kāmakāmī khalu ayam purise" 2/5/123[33]

i.e. man continuously desire for one or the other things. Here the word "kāma"stands for both - sex and desire. The accomplishment of one begets the emergence of another wish. The double use of the world kāma (desire) in the verse depicts that man desire to desire. His desire to desire and to fulfill the desire is what takes him towards the misery. All the desires can never be fulfilled. Those unfulfilled desires creates problem and conflict within the being.

"guru se kāmā." 5/1/2[34]

This means the desires of a worldly man are infinite. Acarya Mahaprajña, the commentator, writes that all kinds of violence are occurred due to the greed sensuality and possession and for the fulfillment of desires.[35] Although there are variations of desires in beings. Some are with least desires, some have optimum desires and some other has higher level of desires. The degree of desires increases with the degree of fulfillment.

"Jahā lāho tahā loho, lāhā lohopavaḍḍhaī"[36]

"As desires are fulfilled and one gets benefitted, the greed increases". Ācārāñga suggests to move in opposite direction i.e. fulfillment of desires creates the problem. There is also a mention of man without desires i.e. nirīccha or aniccha that means having no desires.[37] This stage is believed to be the most supreme one. Although the final goal of life according to Jainism is to become desireless but is it possible to overcome all the desires. Freud answers negatively Jaina text Ācārāñga depicts - kāma duratikkamā 2/5/121[38]

"Desires are very difficult to be renounced". Here the prefix 'dur' is used not in the sense of impossibility but in the sense of difficulty. The desires get flared up by karmas. In āgamas, two types of desires have been found:

1. Causal desire and
2. Causeless desires.

The causal desires are the desires caused by some external causes. Causeless desires are those, which doesn't have any external cause but it is generated by innerself or due to karmas. Most of the repression seems to be of inner ones but even external causes instigate the inner self to produce them. Another thing that becomes clear from this is everyone can overcome or win over desires but the question is- How one can go beyond desiring mode? Commentary on Ācārāṅga, quotes:

"Kevalaṁ vairāgyeṇaiva te tīrnā bhavaṁti, kāmānāmāsevanena te kadāpi tīrnā na bhavaṁtīti tātparyaṁ."[footer]39[/footer]

"Only by detaching from or overlooking desires, can help to cast them away. If you keep fulfilling all the desires they can never be made vacant.”

Ācārāṅga suggests for going beyond desires as it is written:

"eyaṁ ṇiyāya muṇiṇā praveditaṁ...... puvvāvararāyaṃjayamāṇe...... akāme ajhaṃjhe"[40]

The word akāme means here to go beyond 'desires' and ajhaṃjhe' means to go beyond 'conflict'. It shows that desires and conflicts go hand in hand. If one overcomes the desires, as a result even conflict comes to an end. Once the person go beyond the attachment and aversion and become detached to worldly desires can overcome conflicts. Mere fulfillment of desires can never help to overcome them. Even by the word fulfillment, Freud wants to convey the meaning of 'relieving from the desires.' This is most desirable but Jaina texts say mere fulfillment is not enough. That chain of emerging desires must be broken. Here Jainas have a way out. To develop the detachment various spiritual practices have been prescribed in Ācārāṅga commentary. Few of them are as follows:

  1. Living in a solitary place, keeping no relation with worldly people or things.
  2. Determination for not doing (Saṁkalpākaraṇaṁ) - to determine strongly that I would not desire or would not give preference to desires.
  3. Fasting-If we give over nutrition to the body, more desires would emerge. Fasting is a way to make the physiological agitators of desires, passive.
  4. Dīrghakālika Kāyotsarga - Practice of Relaxation (a special technique of meditation) for long time.
  5. Self restraint-particularly in the field of sublimation of desires.
  6. Meditation on the centre of bliss situated on and around thymus gland. Proficient scientists of psychic centers hold that the instinct of desiring is related to the centre of power situated at the lower end of spinal cord. To gain control over centre of power, meditation on centre of bliss is recommended.[41]

Jainism prescribes these spiritual practices that can help to get renunciated from all kinds of desires. Some of such sanctioning quotes from Uttarādhyayana and Ācārāṅga would help to prove this aspect of truth. In Uttarādhyayana Sūtra, It has been said the:

"vītarāgayāye ṇaṁ ṇehānubandhaṇaṇi taṇhāṇubandhaṇāṇi ya vocchinda' ī"[42]

Attaining the total state of equanimity, man can cut the knot of desires. Equanimity here means that absence of attachment and aversion completely. But how this state of equanimity be attained?

Uttarādhyayana  Sūtra itself says: kasāyapacchakkhāṇeṇaṁ viyarāgabhāvaṁ jaṇayai.[43]

Getting rid of or renouncement or abandonment of all kinds of emotions, passions and drives results in the emergence of equanimity. The same text further directs „One who gains, control over attachment in sensuous experiences and keep no desire to attain them again and again would definitely attain the eternal happiness and pleasure of supreme quality (avyābādha sukha) breaking all the bonds of miseries‟. They are called as „dupariccaya' (very difficult to abandon), but only a paṇṇāṇehi (self-disciplined monk) can successfully overcome them.[44] It proves that our natural tendency is to remain in peace. Erotic tendency is momentary or impermanent state. Generally we live in a ascetic mood. If we can live for few minutes in ascetic mood, why not forever. That condition is none other than the liberation (i.e. renunciation from desires) and total end to distress.

 

Primitive Aspect of Man or Mind

Another factor that Freud holds is that which comprises the human nature is cannibalism. The primitive beings as Darwin's evolutionary theory depicts, were animals and in the course of evolution complex form of human beings came into existence.[45] Freud was very much influenced by this theory of Darwin. As he said in his Civilization, Society and Religion, that ' Charles Darwin, tried to guess the nature of this primal guilt'[46] Hence he opined directly or indirectly that animosity is still living in human nature. It is inherited and transmitted right from primitive age till today to the generations after generations. When he read the Jewish literature, he found that the primitive people were more violent, more barbaric, ruthless and selfish. 'The primeval history was filled with war.'[47] They had only aim of life to fulfill their desires and ward that off the way which hinders their path of satisfaction of wishes. As he stated the sons of primordial horde killed their father. Hence incest is one of the factors of fundamental human nature. once 48 the wish is satisfied, the need is reduced, and the precious balances of forces is stored.[48]

 

Instinct of Possession Vs. Instinct of Sex

In Civilization and its Discontent Freud has written that the primitive people's reaction towards the possession of women by the father and their wish to possess women lead them to kill the father. This event of primitive times linked by Freud to the primitive aspect of human mind. In the Jaina's view, the primitive man was not incestuous, cannibalistic or narcissistic. In the historical account of Jainism, the primitive people were very self-contented having no great desires or demands. They lived a very restraint life, using minimum of natural resources and fulfilled their needs with naturally available sources. They lived life of simplicity having no violence, no sexuality, and no possession.[49] The first conflict appeared for the possession. They began to own the trees and fought with the people who interfered. The instinct of possession was stronger in primitive man and in primitive mind too. This point strengthens by the fact narrated in Jaina agamas. It depicts that during twenty two tīrthañkara, there were only four mahāvrata-s (great vows followed by ascetic), and during last and first tīrthañkara, there were five great vows followed by an ascetic. The cause of difference is that the fourth great vow 'celibacy' i.e. abstaining from the possession of women was introduced in the concept of five mahāvrata-s. Otherwise it was included under the fifth great vow of 'Non This inclusion of the fourth vow into fifth one, shows that the instinct of possession was stronger than the instinct of sex. Hence Freud's assumption that sexual desire is most dominant instinct was revealed through his own system of study. He was more accustomed to Jewish, Christian, Greek, other literature, mythological issues and cultures, and he studied paganism so he could draw such conclusion. Jaina most ancient historical account, in the very beginning of the era depict other facts as found in Lord Rsabha's time when King Bharat (the saw of Lord Rsabha) fought with his brother Bāhubali, for possessing the kingdom.[50] The acquisition of power was the most dominant instinct, which made them fight furiously with each other for a piece of land. This war, as the Jaina historians say, was the first war in the history of the world that took place millions of years back of the Jewish primal horde.

Even among primitives of Jewish history, we can hold that the instinct of possessing power was more dominant. It was stronger than the possession of woman or sex drive. As the sons grew jealous of their father because they wanted to be as powerful as their father was. The father had owned everything including the woman. Totem and taboo were most powerful modes to guide the human behavior. There were lots of restrictions and repressions. This feeling of not having any power in them, made them outraged and they killed the father and possessed all the powers he had. Hence we may regard that the sphere of instinct of possession is broader than the sphere of sexual instinct. It indicates the possession is the primary urge. Even a child, shows his tendency to possess in its infancy or early years of life but sexual tendency develops or manifest much later. In most famous epics like Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata, there had been terrible wars for possession as recorded in history regarding these prehistoric age. Rāmāyaṇa was fought for Sitā. Sitā was a queen of King Rāma. Sitā was kidnapped by Rāvaṇa. Here it may be seen by an sexual intention of Rāvaṇa, the villain, but behind that he wanted to possess a beautiful lady in his palace to become superior to other kings and show his valor too. In Mahābhārata too the fight was for kingdom. The problem of superiority and possession is found at the foundation of all other instincts.

Another verse of Uttarājjhayaṇāṇi, states end of greed ultimately is the end of miseries. It is mentioned as below:

Dukkhaṁ hayarh jassa na hoi moho, moho hao jassa na hoi taṇhā
taṇhā hayā jassa na hoi loho, loho hao jassa na kincaṇāiṃ
.[51]

Meaning of the verse:

End of delusion begets the end to the miseries, end of desires begets end to the delusion, end of greed begets end to the desires, one who conquers greed would have none of these. Here, the word 'taṇhā' means desires and 'loho' means greed. Greed is the foundation of all miseries and if once it comes to an end, a long chain of misery and discontentment comes to an end. The word for this eternal happiness in Uttarājjhayaṇāṇi is “savvadukkhavimokhaṇaṃ”[52]  i.e. liberation from all miseries. In Ṭhāṇaṃ, there are four causes of conflicts referred: sarīra paḍucca, ṭhānapaḍucca, vatthu paḍucca, uvahipaḍucca. The body, land, objects and other instruments, these are the prime things upon which conflict begins. Hence greed of possessing them remains alive and if they are snatched or owned by others, hurts man. It attacks on superiority complex and greedy attitude of man that makes him to behave violently. He hurts, beats and even kills the others, who are on the way or hindering his path of satisfaction of desires. These are all external causes but internal causes are negative emotions or we can say overpowering of daemonic instincts over divine instincts i.e. erotic phase over ascetic phase of the personality.

Hence, Although Freud observation was correct from the point of view of his study of psycho analysis. He found religion useless in psychological development and in mental treatment. Actually there is another way to deal with this problem and reach to point where human dignity is restored. Jaina agamas show the path to move ahead where Freud stopped. The two but most important schools i.e. philosophy and psychology are complimentary to each other and assists to find a way for renunciation and attainment of ultimate goal of human race.

 

Bibliography

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