10.10.2010 ►Mysore ►Jainism Through the Ages ►Concluding Speech of Prof. Nagarajaiah, Hampa

Published: 10.10.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015

International Conference


Jainism Through the Ages

A Historical Perspective

8th, 9th & 10th October 2010

Mysore, India

Concluding Speech of Prof. Nagarajaiah, Hampa, President of the Conference

http://www.herenow4u.net/fileadmin/v3media/pics/persons/Prof.Dr.Nagarajaiah_Hampana/Prof.Dr.Hampana.jpgJainism preferred to adopt and assimilate local languages and culture, wherever it settled. They took their model and lead from their Ford-Makers’ dictum of universal out look to treat all languages as on par - Sarva-bhAshAmayi Sarasvati, an unique concept to shun the ego of a particular language being superior. MahAvIra preached in subodha ardha MAgadhI, the language of the people of Magadha. His contemporary, illustrious Buddha picked up PAli, also language of the mass, as the media of his teachings. Jains chose local languages that helped them to develop a quick rapport and intimacy with the common people who responded favourably. This paved avenue to spread religion and soon Jainism became the religion of the people. Jaina literati breathed life and vigour to many Indian vernaculars. Kannada language and literature, with its antiquity and richness on par with Tamil or any other language, needs to be focused more. The more it is studied, world will come to know that its vast and rich literature matches in quality and extent other major and ancient classical traditions of the world

Jainism played such a prominent role, as is recorded, from the seventh century BC onwards that it is invested with special significance of global importance. It wielded an unbroken sway over major and minor royal dynasties. A detailed history and literary- cultural attainments of Jainism will go to make the history of India more comprehensive. For centuries Western scholars are familiar with the spread of Jainism in Northern parts of India. But «at the hands of writers on Karnataka, and Indian history however, the influence which this profound Nirgrantha faith cast in the south has not received the attention it deserved. Indeed it may be said without any exaggeration that this subject has been almost ignored by historians of India.» [Saletore 1-2]. Not satisfied with this statement, Saletore, noted historian, further adds in the foot notes«one finds little about this subject in most of the modern works dealing with the history and religions of India. The Cambridge History of India-1, for example, has only a few lines on this question.» [pp. 166-67]. He continues, «other writers like Glasenapp, Der Jainismus, and C. Hayavadana Rao, Mysore Gazetteer (Revised Edition, Bangalore) have nothing more than the few well-known facts to relate» [supra: 'Intro']. Many other scholar-critics have bemoaned the litterateur's negligence of such an important literary tradition.

Even now, after seven decades of Saletore's observation, things have not changed much. Except for some excellent papers and a few books by a handful of scholars, progress is not at all satisfactory. «It is remarkable how little attention Western scholars pay to Jainism in art history and iconography the situation is extreme. In Books like Benjamin Roland's classic of 1953, The Art and Architecture of India; Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, and Susan Huntington's 1985 book of almost identical title, The Art of Ancient India; Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, a reader might assume that Jainism was prominent. In fact neither book has more than a handful of pages-say, five or ten-- on Jainism--out of 500 in one case and 750 in the other. The dates of the two books suggest that the increased interest in eastern religions among Westerners in the last couple of generations has not significantly changed this imbalance» [Thomas McEvilley 2002].

However we cannot forget the remarkable services rendered by many other western/European scholars «much has been accomplished by western scholars-including many Germans-during a period of about one hundred and fifty years, burning the midnight-oil with a view to make the world acquainted with one of the finest products of Indian mind» [W. Schubring]. Through their untiring efforts, a select group of German Indologists have enriched Jainology and Prakrit Studies. We may recall in the sequel how Herman Jacobi was, for his extraordinary contribution, was profusely honoured by the Jaina community, by bestowing the befitting title of Jaina DivAkara.

To assign Jainism to its proper place in the over all context of Indian history is a desideratum. Any attempt to give a panoramic view of Jainism, covering its vast corpus of extant epigraphical and literary sources from north to south and east to west, is beyond the scope of this speech and that would require volumes! Therefore I have devoted most part of my speech to highlight the equally important southern track, where Jainism found its second home. Clear and proven historical associations of the Deccan with Jainism explicitly manifest from the last four centuries of BC, as is evident from the inscriptions of TamiLnADu. «No survey of Jainism in the Tamil country, however brief, can be complete without mentioning the enormous contribution made by the Jains to the growth of Tamil literature from the earliest times up to about the 16th century CE. While justice cannot be done to this vast subject within the scope of the present study, mention must be made at least of such outstanding works by Jaina authors like TolkAppiam and Nannul among the grammatical works, CilppatikAram, CIvakacintAmaNi and Perunkatai among the epics, the immortal KuraL and NAlaDiyAr among the ethical works and TivAkaram, Pinkalandai and CUDAmaNi among the lexicons. To this already formidable record may be added what is surely the most basic and fundamental contribution by the Jaina monks to Tamil viz., the development of a script for the language leading to literary and the later efflorescence of Cankam literature in the early centuries CE.» [Iravatham Mahadevan: SVASTI (Ed) Nalini Balbir: 2010]. The very nomen Camgam is borrowed from samgha of Jaina tradition.

Since this International Conference is taking place here in Mysore, to be fair to the place and subject, I desire to devote some space for the local heritage. KarnATaka has been a boon, an umbrella, a sweet home for the sustenance of Jainism for over two and a half millennium. There is a regular tradition of how and when Jainism came into the region of KarnaTaka and those facts are taken into consideration without much hesitation. Jaina vestiges are not scarce in the Deccan. Ancient Tamil and Kannada literature is full of Jaina works. «the earliest cultivators of Kannada language were Jainas. The oldest works of any extent and value that have come down to us are all from the pen of Jains. The period of the Jainas’predominance in the literary field may justly be called the 'Augustan Age of Kannada literature’» [R. Narasimhachar]. Jainism helped in bringing South closer to the rest of the country, The main bulk of Archaeological evidences now extant, trace this association from as early as the the fourth century BC. A strong Jaina establishment at SravaNabeLagoLa is much earlier and also goes back to the fourth century BC. In other words the extant proofs establish that Jainism had entered Deccan a century after the nirvANa of MahAvIra. The very mention of BhadrabAhu and Candragupta in the inscriptions of the early period is suggestive of penetration of early Jainism in the Deccan.

The spread of Jainism in the southern region is connected with the migration of BhadrabAhu. In fact that was the period when religio-cultural elements were emerging and merging. Ever since the fifth and last apostle BhadrabAhu, with his royal disciple Candragupta Maurya and a retinue of thousands of monks migrated and settled at the modern SravaNabelagola. Jaina samgha did not emerge all of a sudden and with the advent of BhadrabAhu as it is commonly stated. Even before his migration to Deccan and SravaNabelagola, Jaina community had existed in the south long before the arrival of BhadrabAhu. Jains were a Dravidian and a non-Aryan race. KoppaLa, modern District headquarters in Karnataka, was an ancient Jaina seat, possibly more ancient than SravaNabeLagoLa. Mentioned in inscriptions variously as KopaNAdri, KopaNagiri, the place is referred as Adi-TIrtha and MahA-Tirtha. The place is also famous for king ASoka's major Rock Edict. Jainism had flourished here from fifth and fourth century BC.

Jainism grew from strength to strength under the incessant patronage of successive major and minor royal dynasties. It flourished to the extent that Karnataka became an abode of Jainism. In brief, as an epigraph from KuppaTUr puts it, KarnAtaka was an abode of Jainism. Therefore there is lot of justification in this Conference taking place at Mysore in Karnataka, which needs no exaggeration. Jainism has also reciprocated its gratitude to Karnataka in many ways. Jaina samgha having settled here renounced Prakrit and accepted local language as its mother tongue. Jaina literati cultivated Kannada and elevated it to become an important literary language in India.

Jains have built magnificent temples. In Karnataka JAina temples are popular as Basadis (from Sanskrit Vasati, ‘place of residence'). They were not mere places of worship. Basadis were by the people, of the people, and for the people. They were the pivot of learning and spreading spiritual knowledge. One of the caturvidha-dAnas, four must donative duties prescribed for each and every individual, was to help to promote education through SAstra-dAna. The other three principles being AhAradAna, to give food to friars and poor, abhyadAna, to extend an helping hand to the fear stricken and forlorn, and bhaishajya-dAna, to distribute free medicine to the diseased. These human virtues made the religion more popular among the common mass. Jains reached people of lower strata by educating them. They used JinAlayas as a plank and platform to achieve this goal. In fact Jinamandiras maintained well-equipped SrutabhaNDAras, "treasure houses or libraries", for the ascetics and lay votaries. As a result of this motivation today the percentage of literacy in Jaina community, both men and women, highest in India, reaching 93%. No gender discrimination in imparting good education.

Basadis provided food, shelter, protection, and education for monks, nuns, devotees, and above all to the talented authors and artisans. Many authors sat and wrote their works staying in the divine atmosphere of temples. Building JinAlayas in thousands was job oriented multi faced activity. It encouraged architects, sculptors to take up the holy work as a solace of serving spiritual aspirations. Therefore, commissioning JinAlayas was a life sustaining work. Monasteries attached to the Basadis joined hands in the cause of moulding the individual and the community at large. The Jaina prayer that echoes in their temples has an universal approach and appeal since it embraces mankind, Kshemam sarva-prajAnAm, wishing good for all. Jainism has nurtured tastes and tendencies conducive to the development of JIvo JIvasya jIvitam, 'live and let live', attitude. While recording his appreciation, William Norman Brown writes «of the courtesy and scholarship of Jain monks and laymen, of their lofty ideals and noble lives. They are of the greatness that is India. There is a spirit of helpfulness, tolerance, and sacrifice coupled with their intelligence and religious devotion that makes them as one of the world's choice communities» [ W. Bollée 's Preface to W. Schubring's The Doctrine of Jainas:2003: vi ].

At a time when India is witnessing a revival of ancient forms of knowledge, there is the issue of oriental languages striving hard to stay alive. The time has come for a review of both structure and course content of all under -graduate and Post-Graduate courses with special reference to language and literature. In the sequel, I have valid reasons to stand up to speak in favour of the languages of people in which Buddha and Mahavira preached and greatest masters wrote their immortal works.

Prakrit and Sanskrit pundits were never at loggerheads. Sanskrit authors on poetics and rhetorics quoted profusely from Prakrit works. The kAvya-mImamsakAras had a fancy for quoting Prakrit gAthAs to illustrate rasas, emotions. The GAhAkoso (GAthAsaptaSatI) of HAlarAja was quite popular in Karnataka. Kannada literati was proficient both in Sanskrit and Prakrit. Sanskrit became more popular in Karnataka because of Jaina saints and scholars. RavikIrti (634CE), Samatabhadradeva (550-625CE), PUjyapAda (630ce), Akalamka (750ce), Jinasen I (793ce), Jinasena II (770-870ce), GuNabhadra (840-900)and SomadevasUri (900-968ce) and other poets wrote brilliant works in Sanskrit which inspired others to opt for Sanskrit.

The credit of initiating Jaina genius into the fold of Sanskrit goes to two contemporary celebrities, VAcaka UmAsvAti (350-400 CE) of uccairnAgara-SAkhA and Siddhsena DivAkara (370-450) who started a lineage of monks named after him as the Siddhasena DivAkara-gaccha. Among the early writers who felt the need for adopting Sanskrit language, the pan-Indian intellectual lingua franca, in addition to equally important Prakrit dialects, to reach more readers, these two erudite scholars, played a prominent role. Paradoxically, Siddhasena DivAkara-illustrious hymnist, dialectician, epistemologist, was expelled from Jaina samgha for a period of twelve years, for suggesting that the Agamas or scriptures be translated into Sanskrit. Albeit, Sanskrit was a favourite language and literature for Jains. The MahApurANa of Jinsena and GuNabhadra AchArya's, magnum opus work of 20, 000 Slokas, is an out standing example..

Albeit, strangely, Prakrit languages and literature of Indian wisdom, now runs the risk of getting deleted. Over the last few decades in particular there has been a growing feeling among oriental scholars that the Prakrit language issue had fallen off the crowded Government's table. The spirit and promise of the Central Govt has faltered. Its policy of language is a picture of contrast and contradiction. Protecting the languages like Pali and Prakrit, which are on the brink of extinction and still entrenched in abyss, should have become one of the priorities in the language curriculum. Instead of monitoring this disparity and discrimination, it is behaving arbitrarily. Even our greatest authorities can commit the grossest errors on the most fundamental issues. Proffering the Classical language status is one such. The Central Govt's notification of recognising Tamil, Kannada and Telugu is a welcome decision, though the latter two languages were considered only after two years of consistent public agitation demanding equal justice. Albeit, for centuries, even during the Muslim and the British rule, Sanskrit enjoyed liberal patronisation at the cost of Prakrit language. Regrettably, the post-independent period of five decades witnessed status quo ante. It is distressing that no attempt was made to improve the pathetic condition of Prakrit language and literature. There are twelve Sanskrit Universities in addition to Academies, and Sanskrit departments in Universities and Colleges throughout India. Well and good, and it deserve all that and more. But paradoxically, there is not even a single University or Academy for Prakrit, a language and literature as old and as rich as Sanskrit is. The Central Govt failed once again to accord Classical language status to Prakrit, in the recent order of recognising Tamil. As such the Central Govt's notification was uneven or erratic at best. Apathy of successive Governments towards Prakrit has resulted in denying its right to have a distinct place in education.

The UNESCO has also done a HimAlayan blunder in not including Prakrit in its approved list of Classical Indo-European Languages. It has listed the following languages as Classical:

  1. Classical Greek
  2. Classical Latin
  3. Classical Sanskrit
  4. Classical Persian

In addition to these languages, the UNESCO has listed Classical Arabic, Hebrew, and Classical Chinese as Classical Languages. Alas, it failed to do justice to Prakrit, which, in all counts stands on par with the above languages.

The State Govt of Karnataka started this year Sanskrit University but again failed to accord equal justice to Prakrit. The Governments appear to have been helpless to drive the required systematic changes for improvements and to accord legitimate place of honour for deserving but cornered Prakrit. The principle of ensuring equal opportunities and access to education is delayed if not denied. Justice delayed is justice denied. Despite all this continued injustice to Prakrit, I still maintain faith in Govt's wisdom to deliver goods. Being optimistic I hope either Central Govt or the State or both will soon realise the valid need to protect and promote Prakrit, the ancient opulent treasure trove of India. Hope the Govt will wake up to reality and soon natural justice prevails to accord Prakrit its long over due. It is easy to loose or destroy a language, but it is very difficult to rebuild it.

The lukewarm response from the Central and State Govts need not dishearten us. The lack of interest in the administration was partly due to our poor planning. We are yet to make a consolidated and organised effort to convince and inspire the Govt to start an University exclusively for Prakrit Studies. In this regard Karnataka should take lead. Prakrit's legacy to Kannada language and literature is immense. In fact, but for Prakrit model and inspiration Kannada would not have seen literary exuberance and Renaissance in the early phase and in the medieval period.

Prakrit, language of masses, enjoyed high status of honour and respect among ascetics, literati, and the elite community. Prakrit is not the name of one particular language. It is a collective name representing a number of languages and dialects. There were about 42 local and regional Prakrit languages spread over the country. The GItAlamkAra, a work on musicology attributed to the celebrated BharatAcArya, mentions in the fourteenth and last chapter all the 42 Prakrit languages citing usages for each language. The group of Prakrit spoken languages /dialects included AndrI, ApabhramSa, ArdhamAgadhi, AuDhra, AvantI, DhakkI, GurjarI, Kalingya, KarnAta, Kosala, MAlavI, MahArAshtrI, PAmcAla, PAli, PaiSAci, SaindhavI, SAkarI, Sauraseni etc. It is well known that Sanskrit dramas of illustrious KAlidAsa, BhAsa and others were full of Prakrit language. Except king and VidUSaka, all other characters, women in particular, conversed only in a variety of Prakrit. As such to mention those plays as Sanskrit dramas is a misnomer.

In the 20th century, those who edited these ancient Dramas did a great disservice to Prakrit by composing Sanskrit translations to conversations in Prakrit. The method of giving Sanskrit chAya in the footnotes, to Prakrit usages in the body of main text, dominated to the extent that original conversation in Prakrit was gradually erased and forgotten making way for duplicate Sanskrit ChAya. As a result students have read only the Sanskrit chAya, seldom bothering with the original Prakrit. Gradually the old territories of Prakrit were completely occupied by Sanskrit. Scholars of the Prakrit soon found themselves reduced to minority and silence, and deprived of effective influence. With calculated assault on Prakrit, Sanskrit was made to thrive on the samAdhi of Prakrit. This indeed is the sorrowful state of language politics. I wish and pray that the traditional cordiality of treating Sanskrit and Prakrit as two faces of Indian literature and culture, and considering them as complimentary to each other will prevail. Let that wisdom soon dawn on the sceptre. Hope soon or rather forth with the National Knowledge Commission will take note of according Prakrit its place of honour. Respected Sam Pitroda, Yeshpal and Kapil Sibal, do you here me?

The influence of Jainism on other contemporary faiths and vice versa has been underlined by scholars of comparative study. Apart from vegetarianism of the higher castes taking its roots from Jainism there are other fields with Jaina imprints. To substantiate this statement I quote some excerpts:

«MAdva's philosophy was influenced by Jainism in its epistemology, ontology, logic and theory of the soul from the beginning» [Zydenbos 109].

The Saivas in TamilnADu appropriated Jaina forms of worship«many important ideas that formed the corner stone of the Saiva bhakti movement like the idea of social equality, the literary tradition, the institution of maThas, simplicity of the religious concepts and the idea of miracles can all be traced to the Jainas who had had a major presence in the region prior to the rise of Saivite bhakti» [Rajesh M. N 2003]. The concept Samgam age in the early phase of tamil literature owes its origin to Jaina and Bauddha samghas. All the five MahAkAvyas of the samgham period are Jaina and Bauddha works.

«The philosophy of the MahAnubhAva sect bears strong imprints of the Jaina concepts. JnAneSvara. takes notice of Jaina practices of tonsure and straining water inJnAneSvarI. Thus Jainism appears to have integrated with the society in MahArAshTra. Jaina stories are woven into MarAThi folk-songs, while Jaina invocation ‘Om Namah Siddham ‘has been incorporated into the culture of MarAthi population» [Viraj Shah 260-61].

The concept of SrInivasa and PadmAvati evolved on the the popularity of PadmAvatidevi Yakshi cult in the Jaina tradition «P. B. Desai 1957». In the same way, the concept and sculpture of BrindAvan in MAdhva sampradAya was directly borrowed from niSidhi concept and sculpture. The concept of invocatory verses in the beginning of inscriptions was also a Jaina innovative. The instances of Jaina influence are many and more. «The impact of Jainism on Hinduism has been far from superficial. Therefore, it is also clear that we must re-asses the view commonly held in academic circles that Jainism played a rather marginal role in Indian cultural history.» [Zydenbos 103-09].

To take up translation work, on priority basis, all the Digambara works in to Hindi, Gujarati, Rajasthani and English will go a long way. Similarly translation of the 45 SvetAmbara Agamas and TerApanth sect's canonical works in to other languages including Kannada is an urgent need of the hour. This AdAn and PradAn process will facilitate to bridge the long pending gaps. Yes, bridges bring poles nearer. Coming nearer is a leap forward towards becoming dearer to each other. Further more it will help to go back to the roots of the religion. Much water has flown and it is time to view all religions in the context of a globalised world. Indeed there is a need for a creative reinterpretation of Jainism in a progressive global system. Prejudices between sects should sink paving way for coexistence. I take this opportunity to announce that some tangible progress is made in this direction.

Highest revenue to Indian Exchequer, about 40% annually, comes from the Jaina community. Yet, they are not accorded proper recognition. They are eligible / entitled for minority status. Though some ten States have extended Minority status, the Central Govt. is yet to declare its favorable decision.

I would like to conclude my presidential speech with a meaningful reference to one of the gem of verses from the KavirAjamArga, magnum opus of SrIvijaya, poet-laureate in the court of Amoghavarsha Nrupatunga (814-78CE), the RAshTrakUta emperor. ‘What is gold ', advancing this million pound question, poet defines it with his matured consideration; ‘gold is not just the yellow metal that glitters. On the other hand it is the virtue to be accomplished that is more valuable. If one can forbear the philosophy and tenor of argument, and endure the religious observance and line of thinking of others, genuinely that is precious gold'. The poet has crystallized the gist of anekAntavAda and syAdvAda, i. e., respecting and appreciating other's point of view. This is a happy blend of twin doctrines of anekAntvAda, 'multi faceted view of reality or non-one-sidedness ', and the syAdvAda, ‘qualified assertion', integral part of Jaina faith's great experiment with ahimsA. This healthy outlook may act as a panacea to many communal clashes and unnecessary bitter hatred.

It is really hard to give up attachment to one's thoughts or standpoint, because they stem from one's ego. The AnekAntvAd is the theory of flexibility, an ability to bend, to yield. Refusing to be rigid about one's own point of view is enshrined in anekAntvAd, and inextricably inter wined with another Jaina ideal of syAdvAd, to move beyond one's ego-bound self to a greater realization of the larger, all-encompassing self. The willingness to give up rigidity for the sake of truth, leads to pluralism, a tolerance of diversity of thought and faith. Stepping back from the obduracy of ‘my religion and my thought is better than yours', and appreciating other's thought and religion, is a movement towards genuine non-injury, the message of Jaina prophets. This multum-in-parvo theory of Jaina dialectic accepts the manifoldness of reality and postulates a ‘multiverse’as opposed to the concept of ‘universe'. To define briefly, anekAntavAda is for thinking, syAdvAda is for the expression, and ahimsA is for practice.

Numerically Jaina community is in minority. But numerical strength is not the only criterion to sustain. Pondering on the compassionate approach of non-violence to fellow beings and strict vegetarianism, the cognoscenti of the east and west alike have recognised Jainism as a relevant creed to the modern world. Environmentalists have acknowledged it as an eco-friendly religion. It is the earliest religion to take up environmental issue as part of its core principles. Will Jainism endure the weight of quick scientific and economic developments is a question worth asking. Globalisation and technology will brighten the prospect and future of Jaina philosophy. «Whatever vicissitudes the community may have experienced in the past, the cumulative weight of a specific historical experience, the richness and coherence of the multidimensional world of learning, ethics, art, ritual and social inter action in which Jains have always moved, and the continuity of so many basic institutions and practices will ensure that Jainism does not succumb, even if its followers do not dramatically expand in numbers» [Paul Dundas 275].

Contemplating on the priority that the Jaina samgha should take up for its sustenance in the modern age of speed and technology, I would like to emphasise on a particular point which indeed is the need of the hour. Jains had built magnificent temples. But for various reasons, many ancient Jaina sanctuaries and sculptures from Kashmir to Kanyakumari face very real danger of serious nature. Conversion on a large scale and quarrying is going on unabated. Historically important Jaina sites are vanishing before our own eyes and we are helpless spectators. To protect and preserve the priceless monuments for posterity is not only the responsibility of Central and State Governments but also the duty of community as well.

In addition to commissioning magnificent and spectacular Jinamandiras and conducting rituals on a grand scale spending lakhs and crores, equal or rather more interest is to be bestowed to restore our ancient treasure trove of primordial texts. The opulence of Jaina community reserved for religious activities needs to be properly canalised. A time has come when we have got to pay more attention to not only preserve and protect but also promote our ancient and basic literature in Prakrit, Sanskrit and vernacular languages. We have got to strengthen the existing Jainology and Prakrit Departments in India and abroad. Some of them, for lack of sufficient funds to sustain, are on the Virge of vanishing in to a pathetic state of oblivion. Even in Germany, where once the study of Jainism was a favourite subject, Jainology and Indology are not encouraged by the management diverting funds to other courses. Under the adverse circumstances, Jaina community leaders and donors should think of opening Jainology Chairs in many other suitable Universities to become a hub for Jaina Studies. If we do not do it who else, and if not now when is the relevant question that the Caturvidha Samgha has to consider.

Trust this conference will inspire next generation to anchor as well as equip themselves with the knowledge of Jainology, its hoary past and its relevance to modern times. Let the debate and discourse go on. Through dialogue and discourse one can develop a rapport. In the Jaina literature, SreNika and his consort CelanA symbolised the spirit of enquiry. They posed questions to Jina and gaNadharas, and their answers provided deep insight in to the nature of spirituality and Jaina philosophy. These answers were of great practical value. Hence the questions and answers are like the two wings of a swan. It is said that MahAvIra delivered more than two hundred sermons and religious discourses at RAjagriha, metropolis of SreNika. SreNika, along with his retinue and consorts visited frequently to the caitya at MaNDikukshi where he put 60, 000 questions to MahAvIra and elicited answers with which he was highly pleased.

It is wisely said nahi kRutamupkAram sAdhavo vismaranti, the virtuous will not forget the help that they have received. I place on record my deep sense of gratitude to the State Govt of Karnataka, Dr. R. Gopal, Director, Directorate of Archaelogy and Museums in particular, and Shri. R. K. Jain, President of All India Digambar Jain MahAsabha, for collaborating in the unique event. Dr. R. Gopal, dynamic Director and Mr. R. K. Jain, devoted to the cause of his community, dreamt of this International Conference and worked hard to mobilise resources and make their dream come true.

Reference Works

AggaLa (1189CE)

Candraprabha PurANa (Kannada)

BrahmaSiva (1178CE)

SamayaparIkshe (Kannada)

Banerjee R. D.

The Age of Imperial Guptas, 1933

Dandekar R. N.

A History of the Guptas, 1941

Deo S. B.

Jaina Monachism, 1956

Desai P. B.

Jainism in South India and Some Jaina Epigraphs, 1957

Dundas, Paul

The Jains (1992), 2002

Flugel, Peter

The Invention of Jainism, A short History of Jaina Studies

Hermann Jacobi

Jaina Sutras, pt. 1 & 2 (Reprint), 1968

Jaini, Padmanabh, S

Jaina Path of Purification, 1979

Mahadevan, Iravatham

Early Tamil Epigraphy, Harvard, 2003

Malvania D. D

‘The Jaina Concept of Deity', Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture, (eds) Shah U. P., Dhaky, M. A.

McEvilley, Thomas

Jinamanjari 25-1, April 2002

Nagarajaiah, Hampa

RashTrakUTas, Revisit, 2010

Narasimhachar R

History of Kannada Literature

Pollock, Sheldon

‘The Cosmopolitan Vernacular', The Journal of Asian Studies 57-1, February 1998, pp. 6-37

Ponna (960CE)

ShAntipurANa (Kannada), (ed) Nagarajaiah, Hampa, 1981

Rajesh M. N

Kevala Bodhi (ed)Aloka Parasher Sen, 2003

Saletore, B. A

Medieval Jainism, 1938

SAntinAtha (1062CE)

SukumAracarite (Kannada)

Shah, Viraj

‘Jainism in Maharashtra: History and Development', Kevala Bodhi (ed) Aloka Parasher Sen, 2003

Schubring, Walther

The Doctrine of Jainas, 2003

Sekhar, Vincent

Jain Journal, 37-4, 2003

Srivastava, Sachidanand

‘the Antiquarian Significance of some of the basic Concepts of Jain Philosophy', RupAnjali, 1983

Zimmer, Heinrich

1. Philosophies of India, 1951


2. The Art of Indian Asia, Vols I, II, (ed) Joseph Campbell, New Jersey, 1955, Vol I, p. 134

Zydenbos, Robert J.

’Jaina Influence in the Formation of Dvaita Vedanta', Jain Journal, Vol. XXV-3 January, 1991, pp. 103-09

Share this page on:
Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Agamas
  2. Ahimsa
  3. Aloka
  4. Anekantavada
  5. Anekantavada And Syadvada
  6. Anekantvad
  7. Anekantvada
  8. Apabhramsa
  9. Ardhamagadhi
  10. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture
  11. Bangalore
  12. Basadis
  13. Bhakti
  14. Body
  15. Buddha
  16. Candraprabha
  17. Digambar
  18. Digambara
  19. Fear
  20. Flugel
  21. Ganadharas
  22. Globalisation
  23. Hermann Jacobi
  24. Hinduism
  25. Iravatham Mahadevan
  26. JAINA
  27. Jacobi
  28. Jain Journal
  29. Jaina
  30. Jaina Art
  31. Jaina Sutras
  32. Jaina Temples
  33. Jaini, Padmanabh, S
  34. Jainism
  35. Jainism Through The Ages
  36. Jainism in South India
  37. Jina
  38. Jinasena
  39. Kanyakumari
  40. Karnataka
  41. Magadha
  42. Maharashtra
  43. Mahasabha
  44. Mahavira
  45. Mathas
  46. Minority Status
  47. Mysore
  48. Nagarajaiah, Hampa
  49. Nalini Balbir
  50. Nirgrantha
  51. Nirvana
  52. Non-violence
  53. OM
  54. Padmavati
  55. Pali
  56. Paul Dundas
  57. Prakrit
  58. Pujyapada
  59. Rajagriha
  60. Rajasthani
  61. Saiva
  62. Samadhi
  63. Samgha
  64. Sanskrit
  65. Santinatha
  66. Sarasvati
  67. Schubring
  68. Siddhasena
  69. Slokas
  70. Soul
  71. Space
  72. Sravanabelagola
  73. Srenika
  74. Svasti
  75. Svetambara
  76. Syadvad
  77. Syadvada
  78. Tamil
  79. Terapanth
  80. Tolerance
  81. Vegetarianism
  82. Viraj Shah
  83. W. Bollée
  84. William Norman Brown
  85. Yakshi
  86. Zimmer, Heinrich
  87. Zydenbos
Page statistics
This page has been viewed 3871 times.
© 1997-2020 HereNow4U, Version 4.04
Contact us
Social Networking

HN4U Deutsche Version
Today's Counter: