Uttaradhyayana Sutra ► Twenty-Sixth Lecture: The Correct Behaviour

Posted: 29.09.2015

Twenty-Sixth Lecture: The Correct Behaviour

I shall declare the correct behaviour (sāmāchārī) which causes freedom from all misery; by practising it the Nirgranthas have crossed the ocean of Saṃsāra. (1)

The correct behaviour of monks consists of (the following) ten parts: 1. āvaśyikā; 2. naiṣēdhikī; 3. āpṛcchanā; 4. pratipṛcchanā; 5. chandanā; 6. icchākāra; 7. mithyākāra; 8. tathākāra; 9. abhyutthāna; 10. upasampad. (2-4)

The āvaśyikā is required when he leaves a room (or the presence of other monks on some necessary business); the naiṣēdhikī, on entering a place; āpṛcchanā, (or asking the superior's permission) for what he is to do himself; pratipṛcchanā, for what somebody else is to do; chandanā,(or placing at the disposal of other monks) the things one has got; icchākāra, in the execution (of one's intention by oneself or somebody else); mithyākāra, in the blaming oneself (for sins committed); tathākāra, (assent) in making a promise; abhyutthāna, in serving those who deserve respect; and upasampad, in placing oneself under another teacher. Thus the twice fivefold behaviour has been declared. (5-7)

After sunrise during the first quarter (of the first Pauruṣī)[1] he should inspect (and clean) his things and pay his respects to the superior. (8)

Then, with his hands joined, he should ask him:

"What shall I do now? I want to be employed, sir, in doing some work or in studying." (9)

If he is ordered to do some work, he should do it without tiring; if he is ordered to study, he should do it without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (10)

A clever monk should divide the day into four (equal) parts (called pauruṣī), and fulfil his duties (uttaraguṇa) in all four parts. (11)

In the first Pauruṣī he should study, in the second he should meditate, in the third he should go on his begging-tour, and in the fourth he should study again. (12)

In the month āṣāḍha the Pauruṣī (of the night) contains two feet (pada);[2] in the month Pauṣa, four; in the months Chaitra and Aśvayuja, three. (13)

(The Pauruṣī) increases or decreases a digit[3] (aṅgula) every week, two digits every fortnight, four digits every month. (14)

The dark fortnight of āṣāḍha, Bhādrapada, Kārttika, Pauṣa, Phālguna, and Vaiśākha are known as avamarātrās.[4] (15)

In the quarter of the year comprising the three months Jyēṣṭhāmūla, āṣāḍha, and Śrāvaṇa, the (morning-) inspection is to last six digits (beyond ¼ Pauruṣī); in the second quarter, eight; in the third, ten; in the fourth, eight.[5] (16)

A clever monk should divide the night too into four parts, and fulfil his duties (uttaraguṇa) in all four parts. (17)

In the first Pauruṣī he should study, in the second he should meditate, in the third he should leave off sleep, and in the fourth he should study again. (18)

When the nakṣatra which leads the night[6] has reached the first quarter of the heaven, at dawn he should cease to study. (19)

When a small part of the quarter is left,[7] in which the (leading) nakṣatra stands, during that space of time, being considered intermediate[8] (between two) days, a monk should watch. (20)

In the first quarter (of the first Pauruṣī) he should inspect (and clean) his things, pay his respects to his superior, and then begin to study, not allowing himself to be affected by any pains.[9] (21)

In the (last) quarter of the first Pauruṣī, after paying his respect to the Guru, a monk should inspect his almsbowl, without, however, performing the Kāla-pratikramaṇa.[10] (22)

He should first inspect his mouth-cloth,[11] then his broom,[12] and taking the broom in his hand he should inspect his cloth. (23)

Standing upright he holds his cloth firmly and inspects it first leisurely, then he spreads it, and at last he wipes it. (24)

(He should spread the cloth) without shaking or crushing it, in such a way as to make the folds disappear, and to avoid friction of its parts against each other; he should fold it up six times in length, and nine times in breadth, and then he should remove living beings with his hand (spreading the cloth on the palm of his hand).[13] (25)

He must avoid want of attention: 1. in beginning his work; 2. in taking up the corners of the cloth; 3. in folding it up; 4. in shaking out the dust; 5. in putting it down (on some other piece of cloth); 6. in sitting upon the haunches.[14] (26)

(One must further avoid) to hold the cloth loosely, or at one corner, or so as to let it flap, or so as to subject it to friction, or so as to shake it in different ways, or if one has made a mistake in the number of folding (see verse 25) to count (aloud or with the help of the fingers, etc.).[15] (27)

There should be neither too little nor too much of inspection, nor an exchange (of the things to be inspected); this is the right way to do (the inspection), all other methods are wrong:— (28)

(This is) if one engaged in inspecting his things converses or gossips (with anybody), renounces something,[16] teaches another his lesson, or receives his own lesson from another, (he neglects his inspection). (29)

He who is careful in the inspection, protects the six kinds of living beings, viz. the earth-bodies, water-bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, plants, and animals. (30)

He who is careless in the inspection, injures the six kinds of living beings (just enumerated).[17] (31)

In the third Pauruṣī he should beg food and drink, (he may do so) for any of the following six reasons: (32)

1. To prevent an illness; 2. to serve the Guru; 3. to be able to comply with the rules about walking;[18] 4. to be able to comply with the rules of self-control;[19] 5. to save one's life; 6. to be able to meditate on the Law. (33)

A zealous Nirgrantha or Nirgranthī may omit to beg food for the following six reasons, when it will not be considered a transgression of his duties: (34)

1. In case of illness; 2. in case of a disaster; 3. to preserve one's chastity and the Guptis; 4. out of compassion for living beings; 5. in the interest of penance; 6. to make an end of one's life.[20] (35)

Taking his whole outfit a monk should inspect it with his eye; he then may walk about, but not beyond half a Yōjana. (36)

In the fourth Pauruṣī he should put away his almsbowl (after having eaten his meal), and then begins his study which reveals all existent things. (37)

In the last quarter of the fourth Pauruṣī he should pay his reverence to the Guru, and after having performed Kāla-pratikramaṇa,[21] he should inspect his lodging. (38)

A zealous monk should also inspect the place where to discharge his excrements and urine, and then (till the sun sets) he should go through Kāyōtsarga without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (39)

Then he should, in due order, reflect on all transgressions he has committed during the day, with regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct. (40)

Having finished Kāyōtsarga, and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his transgressions committed during the day. (41)

Then having recited the Pratikramaṇa Sūtra,[22] and having annihilated his sins, he should pay his reverence to the Guru (asking absolution),[23] and go through Kāyōtsarga without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (42)

Having finished Kāyōtsarga, and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should pronounce the customary (three) praises, and then wait for the proper time. (43)

In the first Pauruṣī (of the night) he should study; in the second he should meditate; in the third he should leave off sleep; and in the fourth he should study again.[24] (44)

In the fourth Pauruṣī he should wait for the proper time and then begin to study without waking the householders. (45)

In the last quarter of the fourth Pauruṣī he should pay his reverence to the Guru, and performing Kāla-pratikramaṇa[25] he should wait for the proper time. (46)

When the (time for) Kāyōtsarga has arrived, he should go through it, without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (47)

Then he should, in due order, reflect on all transgressions he has committed during the night with regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct. (48)

Having finished Kāyōtsarga and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his transgressions committed during the night. (49)

Then having recited the Pratikramaṇa Sūtra etc. (see verse 41). (50)

He should consider what kind of austerities he will undertake. Having finished his Kāyōtsarga, he pays his reverence to the Guru. (51)

Having finished Kāyōtsarga and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should practise those austerities which he has decided upon, and praise the perfected saints. (52)

Thus has been summarily declared the correct behaviour, by practising which many souls have crossed the ocean of Saṃsāra. (53)

Thus I say.

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Title: Uttarādhyayana Sūtra
Translated: Hermann Jacobi (1895) from Prakrit

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