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Anekāntavāda And Syādvāda: Nayavāda

Published: 18.04.2012

Nayavāda or the theory of partial truth is an integral part of the conception of Anekāntavāda, which is essential to conceive the sole nature of reality (vastu nayati prāpayati saṁvedanākoṭimārohati). It provides for the acceptance of different viewpoints on the basis that each reveals a partial truth (vastvaṁśagrāhī) about object. Naya investigates analytically a particular standpoint of the problem (abhiprāyaviśeṣasya[1]). But if the problem is treated as the complete truth, it is not Naya, but Durnaya or Nayābhāsa or Kunaya[2]. For instance, "It is" is Naya, and "It is and is only" is Durnaya, while "it is relatively (syāt)" is an example of Syādvāda.

Naya can be as many as there are ways of speaking about a thing (fābaiya vayaṇapahā tāvaitya hontinayavāya[3]). This infinite number of nayas has been reduced to seven, viz. (i) Naigama (figurative), (ii) Saṅgraha (general or common), (iii) Vyavahāra (distributive), (iv) Ṛjusūtra (the actual condition at a particular instant for a long time), (v) Śabda (descriptive), (vi) Samabhirūḍha (specific) and (vii) Evaṁbhūta (active).

The first four nayas are Sabda Nayas and the rest are the Artha Nayas, for thoughts and words are the only means by which the mind can approach reality. These seven nayas have been also divided into two categories. Dravyārthika or Sāmānya (nominal or intellectual intuition relating to the substance), and Paryāyārthika or Viśeṣa (phenomenal view relating to the modifications of substances). The first three nayas are connected with the former division and the rest to the latter. In the scriptural language these are named the Niścayanaya (real standpoint) and the vyavahāranaya (practical standpoint).


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Published by:
Jain Vishwa Bharati Institute
Ladnun - 341 306 (Rajasthan) General Editor:
Sreechand Rampuria
Edited by:
Rai Ashwini Kumar
T.M. Dak
Anil Dutta Mishra

First Edition:1996
© by the Authors

Printed by:
Pawan Printers
J-9, Naveen Shahdara, Delhi-110032

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anekāntavāda
  2. Artha
  3. Dravyārthika
  4. Naya
  5. Nayas
  6. Nayavāda
  7. Nayābhāsa
  8. Niścayanaya
  9. Paryāyārthika
  10. Syādvāda
  11. Syāt
  12. Sāmānya
  13. Vyavahāranaya
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