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Mula Sangh

Published: 14.07.2011
Updated: 17.12.2012

Mula Sangh

Mula Sangh (Sanskrit: मूलसंघ mūla saṅgha) is an ancient Jain monastic order. Mula Sangh literally means the "root assembly " or the original order.

Mula Sangh has been the main Digambar Jain order. Today the Digambar Jain tradition is synonymous with Mula Sangh. The great Acharya Kundakunda is associated with Mula Sangh. The oldest known mention of Mula Sangh is from 430 AD.

Mula Sangh was divided into a few branches. According to an inscription from Shravanabelgola, Acharya Ardhabali, fearing the various dissensions which might arise as a result of the influence of the corrupt world age, split up the Mula Sangh into four sections (gana). A more extended version of this story is given by Indranandi in his work Shritavatara (16th century CE). The four major groups were:

  • Nandi Gana, which had two major lineages:
    • Balatkara Gana or Balatkara Gana Saraswat.i Gaccha (oldest known mention 1071 AD).
    • Deshiya Gana or Deshiya Gana Pustaka Gaccha (oldest known mention 860 AD).
  • Sena Gana, the lineage of Jinasena it was formerly called Panchastupa or Surastha. (oldest known mention 821 AD).
  • Deva Gana, the lineage of Akalanka deva.
  • Simha Gana.

The Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola and Mudabidri belong to Deshiya Gana, the Bhattaraka of Humbaj belongs to the Balatkara Gana.


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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Acharya
  2. Acharya Kundakunda
  3. Akalanka
  4. Balatkara Gana
  5. Bhattaraka
  6. Bhattaraka of Humbaj
  7. Bhattarakas
  8. Deshiya Gana
  9. Deva
  10. Deva Gana
  11. Digambar
  12. Gaccha
  13. Humbaj
  14. Jinasena
  15. Kundakunda
  16. Mudabidri
  17. Nandi Gana
  18. PK
  19. Sangh
  20. Sanskrit
  21. Saṅgha
  22. Sena Gana
  23. Shravanabelagola
  24. Shravanabelgola
  25. Simha Gana
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