Is Modern Science Converging Towards Jainism

Posted: 28.12.2012
Updated on: 02.07.2015

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National Symposium on Jain Philosophy, Science And Scriptures

 


 

Is Modern Science Converging Towards Jainism

This paper attempts to explore several problems of modern science and examines whether solutions of some of these problems can be better viewed in Jainism. The basic starting point is the fact that the objective knowledge as defined in the modern science has severe limitations and there can be concept of knowledge much broader than this. The limitations of the scientific knowledge are (a) limitations caused by the mere definitions of conservations laws, (b) the objective process of scientific measurements, (c) limitations caused due to the Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, (d) limitations caused due to realization that all living systems are essentially irreversible in nature, that is they grow and decay, (e) they are open systems compared to the physical system’s which are closed systems, (f) human systems have memory which makes it impossible to do any scientific experimentation on them, (g) there are micro controls in the form of thought processes which cannot be easily adjusted in any planned "scientific experiment", (h) human systems have free will, creativity, tendency to interact strongly with other fellow beings and the environment. Hence it is impossible to perform scientific experiments on human systems and predicting events about them from a purely scientific point of view. But all human beings regularly interact with other human beings and the environment and develop some concept of knowledge about material world, other human beings and the surroundings which need not be scientific in the strict sense. To handle such complex issues of studying human systems, a new discipline has recently emerged known as General Systems Theory (GST). It precisely takes the basic characteristics of human systems into account and define a new formalism where information and order/entropy are more important.

So it is illustrated that scientific knowledge is just a subset of a much wider concept of knowledge which is mentioned in Indian philosophy in general and Jainism in particular. This concept of knowledge states that the actual knowledge is structured in the consciousness. In Jainism, it is even mentioned that knowledge structured in the consciousness can be fully realized when the obstructions caused by material world are eliminated. Hence in this state of absolute purity, a pure soul has infinite knowledge. Actually in Jainism, they talk of knowledge and order, which is very similar to the concept of information and order in General Systems Theory (GST). Not only this, they also talk of spiritual evolution of a worldly soul which can become pure and pure at every step of evolution (known as Gunasthanas). It is stated that with higher states, one’s soul becomes more and more pure and it becomes more and more “orderly”, in the sense that the knowledge content of the soul increases and material particles (karmas) get detached from it. In addition, their concept of knowledge is much wider than that of scientific knowledge as it includes scientific knowledge along with new concepts of knowledge like telepathy and clairvoyance etc. It appears that when they talk of kevaljnana, then all four types of knowledge disappears and one single type of knowledge remains in which one has absolute knowledge of oneself and the world. It is suggested that this state of kevaljnana could be the implicate order of quantum mechanics.

It is argued that rules like five mahavratas, and anuvratas and several other practices followed by Jains are similar to different type of controls in dynamic systems like computers, electronic gadgets, satellites, internet, television etc. The above rules and controls are required to maintain orderliness of human systems in general and the soul in particular. It is suggested that this increase in the spiritual order result into a decrease in the rate of entropy production in the brain and the biosphere. Hence this concept of evolution may provide a new way of evolution which could be very different from the Darwin’s principle of evolution.

 


This paper is dedicated to Late Shri Acharya Shri Tulsi and Late Acharya Shri Mahapragya ji, whose literature and personal meetings of author with them have inspired him beyond imagination.


1. Introduction

Science and technology and their use in economical developments and commercialization have revolutionized the whole world in such a way that everything appears to have changed in last 100-200 years. Developments in the field of space technology, atomic energy, electronics, biotechnology, modern agriculture, telecommunication, and manufacturing systems are some of the examples of these changes. However, they have also resulted into an increase in population, depletion of natural resources, damage to the environment, increase in terrorism, threats of nuclear wars and so on. Also these changes have played a key role in making this world truly global. However, because of these changes and domination of science and technology in all walks of life, an impression has been created that scientific knowledge is the supreme and anything other, which does not fall into this domain is not very relevant. But Science and technology are just two hundred years old only and there was a concept of knowledge and technology even before the modern science came into existence.

Actually one finds that scientific methods developed to study physical systems are not adequate when human systems are also included in this type of formalism (John P. van Gigch, 1978, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, 1976), because all living systems are essentially irreversible in nature, that is they grow and decay and they are also open systems compared to the physical systems which are closed systems. So the biological and social systems cannot be strictly subjected to the process of measurement and hence they are not exactly describable in the strict terminology of the physical, sciences. Also any type of experimentation is not possible in case of human systems (Goldsmith 1990, Jones 1990 and Penrose 1990), as they have memory, free will, creativity, tendency to interact strongly with other fellow beings and the environment. Furthermore there are micro controls in the form of thought processes which cannot be easily adjusted in any planned "scientific experiment". They also have a property of infinite amplification because of the thought processes, which makes it difficult to make them study in a strictly scientific way. Expressed in a different way, it is now felt that the standard concepts used in any scientific study like compartmentalization, reductionism, causality, mechanism, induction, empiricism and passivism etc. (Goldsmith, 1990, Jones 1990) cannot be used to strictly study the biological systems and social systems. Not only this the basic parameters used in science like energy, mass, linear momentum and angular momentum are basically defined for closed isolated systems, so they may not be the best choice for describing the biological and social systems (Penrose, 1990 and John Gigch 1978). The final blow to limitations of scientific methodology is being done by Gödel’s incompleteness theorems (Penrose, 1990) which have virtually shaken the foundation of modern science. Therefore a totally new perspectives and new concepts are required to handle the modern problems of the society.

Hence General Systems Theory (GST) is used for better understanding of the whole problem because by its intrinsic nature, GST can give a better picture of the interconnectedness (Haken 1973, and Jantsch 1980) of various components of the Human-Earth-atmospheric system. It is finally a problem of order versus disorder (Pokharna, 1985, Pokharna 1991, Pokharna 1996 and Pokharna 2006) at all levels and so when we talk of development and evolution, we should talk of development of order and evolution of order for complete understanding of the term development. They will have significant impact on all the problems of the modern life.

It also appears that it will be necessary to explore the concept of consciousness for better handling of the current problems and its connection with knowledge. It is here that the concept of knowledge as enunciated in Indian philosophy in general and Jainism in particular needs to brought into the picture. Actually the Jain concept of knowledge is so extensively discussed with five different type of classes of knowledge that it needs to be further explored in view of modern concepts of knowledge in computer science and neuro sciences. Thus this paper emphasizes that scientific knowledge has limitations and there can be knowledge beyond science and still meaningful. Thus it is mentioned that the concept of knowledge needs to be enlarged further by taking consciousness into account. In addition, if we go deeper then knowledge of consciousness can be better illustrated in terms of correlations among various clusters of neurons and synapses extending up to brains of other living systems and hence a pure consciousness may involve infinite correlations.

There is another dimension of this problem and this deals with the direction of development and evolution in general. In the modern time, the concept of development is governed by the ideas of economic development whereas in the case of evolution, we talk about Darwin’s principle of evolution. However, in Indian philosophy in general and Jainism in particular, we talk of spiritual evolution which essentially talks of evolution of consciousness. In view of several problems faced by the modern world, there is a need to have an extensive comparison between these two types of evolution so that some better model of evolution and direction of development can be evolved.

In view of these issues, it is observed that most of the development in science and technology and their economic exploitations have resulted into a large increase in the entropy at all levels starting from the human brain to the whole biosphere. Hence the concept of “order” as defined in the case of General Systems Theory needs to be closely examined in view of irreversibility of the human systems. It is proposed that the Jain concept of evolution of consciousness might be closely related with some kind of order at different levels.

The importance of consciousness is explained using an example through extraordinary memory of Swami Vivekananda and two examples of satavdhanies who have amazing mental capabilities. Evidence is also given to mention that ancient Indians through this knowledge of consciousness might have even tried to estimate size of smallest particles of matter. This may inspire the scientific community to take up the concept of consciousness in a serious way, because its evolution might be directly lead to new concepts of even development. It is also illustrated that spiritual processes mentioned in Jain philosophy could provide new direction for development and evolution which may be accompanied by reduction in entropy production in the brain as well as the society and the atmosphere.

The advancements in the field of computers, satellite communications and space technology have mesmerized the human mind. The recent discovery of Higgs Boson through a Large Hadrons Collider (LHC) and working of Rover Robot on Mars and its control has demonstrated the wonders of science. However, a deeper analysis shows that all these examples involve advanced theories of dynamic control systems in one way or the other but one should note that they are all non-living systems. But when we compare these with the dynamic control systems of human mind and human brain then we find that human brain is much complex and difficult to control. Hence when Jain Acharya says that there is a need to control human mind then more efforts and attention is required compared to controlling the non-living control systems. These controls lead to higher stages of consciousness.

Also it is found that mechanism of storing data, information and knowledge can be reduced into correlations among clusters of neurons and synapses. Hence it is suggested that with evolution of consciousness may be related with more and more active correlations, finally resulting into correlations among all living systems, leading to infinite correlations.

Not only this, role of consciousness and thought processes as elaborated by David Bohm (1951). His concept of implicate order and explicate order provide a new way of looking at the world. Also we should emphasize that the process based thinking and interconnectedness of various components of nature are most essential to understand the modern problems in a systematic way. Hence Jain philosophy needs to be reexamined in the modern perspective.

Section 2 briefly summarized the consequences of scientific, technical and economic development in producing entropy production in the world. Section 3 illustrates the limitations of scientific methodology due to conservations laws. Section 4 highlights further limitations of scientific methodologies in handling any system and mention the Gödel’s incompleteness theorems which describe such approaches and hence a need to develop an abstract concept of consciousness. Section 5 and 6 elaborates limitations of science as applied to living systems and need to use General Systems Theory. Section 7 explains that concept of knowledge is much more wider than what is describable by modern science. This section deals with the possibility of knowledge through consciousness as mentioned in Indian philosophies and mentioned by some great scientists. The section 8 emphasis on a need to include consciousness as in important input for any system of study in this direction. Section 9 discusses the concept of knowledge through consciousness in Jain philosophy. Section 10 gives an example of spiritual order with a quantitative evidence about sharp memory of Swami Vivekananda with a suggestion that scientific community should take the concept of consciousness very seriously. Two examples of satavdhanies are also given which clearly illustrates higher stages of consciousness which may involve extra ordinary capability of the human mind and consciousness. An example is also given which shows that ancient Jain acharyas might have directly perceived the smallest particle of matter and even tried to estimate their sizes. In section 11, a hypothesis is put forward that spiritual processes may be defined as that set of processes in which rate of entropy production and total entropy decreases and is accompanied by emergence of a new type of order. Section 12 deals with Darwin’s principle of evolution expressed through the famous expression of “Survival of fittest” and is compared it with the spiritual evolution described through the principle of “Live and Let Live”. These two principles will have totally different impact on the definition of the concept of development. Section 13 discusses the impact of too much education of Darwin’s principle of evolution on human life. In section 14, the Jain’s concept of evolution of consciousness is mentioned in summary form. Section 15 gives some examples of “Order” in nature, whereas section 16 mentions some examples of “Order” prevalent among Jain’s monks. An attempt is then made to describe method and mechanism to have evolution of consciousness in Jainism. This methodology is then explained using theory of Dynamic Control systems in section 18, with two examples of discovery of Higgs Boson and Robot Rover. Another concept of correlations among neurons and events is given in section 19 to further explore this concept of order. We then compare Darwin’s principle of evolution with the Jain principle of evolution in greater details. After this role of consciousness in quantum mechanics is discussed in section 21 with concept of implicate order in the present context, probably the ultimate order one can think of and its connection with kevaljnana mentioned in Jainism. Conclusion are given in section 22

2. Science, Technology, Economic development and Entropy

 In this section we shall see how a unidirectional concept of Economic development and its modifications due to science and technology have destroyed the environment and is degrading the life support system irrepairably. Actually economic development is required for smooth running of a society and everybody wants it. However, with the advancements of science and technology, a huge industrial revolution took place in the whole world. Due to this economic activities started concentrating at few places and in few cities. Their activities started polluting the natural resources in a highly damaging way. The whole process of polluting the environment can be traced to these increased industrial activities and increase in population due to decrease in the death rates. Due to congestion of the cities, there results a cut throat competition among people for survival. The old value system based on simplicity, honesty and sincerity started getting replaced by complexity, consumerism, dishonesty, and unwanted domination of certain groups and countries over others. It has also resulted into a large scale corruption in many places in the world. The emphasis on economic development has become so much so that all other type of developments have been set aside. Thus women in many countries who used to work towards spiritual evolution, religious activities and family welfare, have all started working for economic development only. Also indices based on economic growth are so much dominating the people’s mind that impact of economic development on environment is totally ignored.

Effectively one can say that final consequences of these activities have resulted into a very large increase in the entropy (disorder) of the environment and the society. Some examples are given below where one finds ideas of entropy increase in one way or the other.

  1. Mixing of hydrocarbons like petrol and diesel vapor with air and water etc. which were otherwise distinctly separate.
  2. Spread of industrial chemicals and other pollutants in rivers and ponds.
  3. Flow of millions of tones of fertile soil in the sea every year.
  4. Adulteration of food and medicines and many industrial products.
  5. Spread of electromagnetic pollutions in atmosphere due to very large increase in use of mobiles, internet and other electric gadgets.
  6. Decrease in orderliness in music and increase in noise.
  7. Mixing of roles of men and women.
  8. Increase in corruption and black money due to which unaccounted money is diverted from main economy to areas and accounts which are not counted in GDP and so on.

Creation of the so called ordered systems (say concrete jungles, industries etc.) in the name of economic development has basically led to generation of entropy in the biosphere. Such ordered systems can be called as “Ordered material systems” generating large entropy.

Now to understand the root cause of these problems, one has to closely examine the basic laws of science and find out whether this type of analysis can provide better alternatives and new directions of development.

 

3. Limitations of scientific methodology due to conservations laws

Any phenomenon is called scientific if it can be verified in a laboratory under given set of controlled conditions and is reproducible at any point of time and at any place. This condition is called space-time invariance condition in science. In addition, we define conservation laws in physics which are foundation of all scientific measurements. Thus we have conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum etc. Now all these conservation laws are defined for isolated closed systems, thus approximating the nature. Thus energy is defined as that variable of a closed isolated system which does not change over time. But in principle we can never have a totally closed isolated system. Similarly linear momentum is defined as that property of a closed isolated system which remains invariant with any spatial displacement and so on. Hence the mere definitions of conservation laws are not perfect because they first divide the world and then try to define it.. The interaction among these systems are then studied by considering the nature and magnitude of the interaction among them. For biological systems which are so strongly interacting with each other, this type of formalism cannot be applied in a satisfactory way in a real sense.

 

4. Gödel’s incompleteness theorems:

The most attractive aspect of scientific knowledge is its mathematical basis. We generally feel that this mathematical representation of various scientific facts makes our knowledge more precise and accurate. However, from the following theorems which have been put forward by the great mathematician Kurtz Gödel, we find that any mathematical representation of any physical reality limits our knowledge of that reality. Not only this but the theorem also implies that none of the languages or representation can express the reality of nature with perfection. Complete knowledge must necessarily have its foundation in an unexpressed, unmanifested  field of intelligence. Let us begin with the theorems.

4.1. Gödel’s first in-completeness theorem

This theorem says that the truth of a formalism (which describes any phenomenon) cannot be proved. Thus no finite expression of mathematical knowledge can ever provide a basis for comprehensive knowledge even of the elementary properties of the counting numbers. Thus if one starts with a collection C of symbolic mathematical (or any other) axioms which is specifiable by a finite number of mechanical rules, and if C is consistent, then there will be a true statement about the counting numbers which can-not be proved from the axioms C, using the standard rules of mathematical logic. The proof of this theorem shows that from C one can construct a sentence S in the simple mathematical language of elementary number theory whose meaning is: This sentence is not provable from C. Once S is constructed it follows easily that S must be true but not provable from C. Thus on the basis of any finitely specifiable collection of axioms C, one cannot prove all true propositions about the counting numbers.

4.2. Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem

A formal language (mathematical or any other) if consistent cannot define its own truth i.e. the definition of truth for a theory must be of a higher order than the theory itself. We can also say that the consistency of any specifiable collection of axioms can never be established on the basis of mathematical arguments which can be justified by these axioms. Thus to establish the validity of any single mathematical system one must necessarily utilize a more comprehensive system, to validate the latter system one has to investigate an even more comprehensive system.

 

 

5. Limitations of physical sciences as they are applied to living systems:

Actually a all living beings are essentially irreversible in nature, that is they grow and decay and they are also open systems compared to the physical system’s which are closed systems. They constantly interact with the environment like, human beings takes oxygen from atmosphere and releases carbon di-oxide. Hence biological and social systems cannot be subjected to the process of measurement and hence they are not exactly describable in the strict terminology of the physical, sciences, in addition, human systems have memory which makes it impossible to do any scientific experimentation on them. Hence such systems are studied in a different way by using statistical procedures. In such methods only some rough trends or patterns can be found.

Now this type of experimentation is not possible in case of present phenomena because as shown above human system has memory, free will, creativity, tendency to interact strongly with other fellow beings and the environment. Furthermore there are micro controls in the form of thought processes which cannot be easily adjusted in any planned "scientific experiment". Hence it is impossible to perform experiments on human systems and predicting events about them from a purely scientific point of view.

 

6. General Systems Theory can bridge science with religion:

Hence to handle all the above problems mentioned above, we look for a new discipline which has recently emerged (John Gigch, 1978) and is called General Systems Theory (GST). It has been developed to handle such complex systems and issues. Different sets of rules are there to describe and understand such systems.

This concept takes into account both physical systems and biological and social systems. Actually systems properties depend on their domain. The domain of systems is the field over which they extend. It can be classified as to whether: (a) Systems are living or nonliving, (b) Systems are abstract or concrete, (c) Systems are open or closed, (d) Systems exhibit a high or low degree of entropy or disorder, (e) Systems display organized simplicity, unorganized complexity or organized complexity, (f) Systems can be ascribed a purpose or not, (g) Feedback exist or not, (h) Systems are ordered in hierarchies and/or Systems are organized. (See Pokharna 2010 for details)

In this analysis pure physical sciences are now categorized as hard systems and subjects like sociology, religion, psychology, biology etc are classified as soft systems. (Bertalanffy 1976). It has been developed to handle such diverse systems and is a serious attempt to reconcile physical sciences with social sciences. As per this theory, all systems are characterized by transfer of information, knowledge and entropy/order which are much more important than any other attribute. Even energy comes next to them.

Hence even religion also falls in this domain as some type of system in which there is information and knowledge transfer going on continuously. Actually the physical systems like physics, chemistry and mathematics are called “Hard systems”, whereas social systems like sociology, biology, religion, political science and economics are called “Soft systems”. Thus religion and science can be put together in this formalism.

7. Need to realize that scientific knowledge is only a subset of the total knowledge system and actual Knowledge is structured in the consciousness

With the advent of science and the resulting technology, a misunderstanding and misconception has developed among the masses that the scientific knowledge is the only ultimate knowledge in the world. Not only this, it also presumed that the knowledge which is experimentally verifiable and repeatable at any place and at any time alone is the actual knowledge. This is far from the truth. The fact is that the so called science is just around 200 years old and the concept of knowledge existed much before that for several centuries. Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Agamas, Mahabharat and Ramayana, Koran, Bible have lot of knowledge about life and controls to be followed. Similarly technology of gold manufacturing in the ancient India, design of old temples etc. involve knowledge, which need not be scientific.

Actually the recent developments in computer science and neurobiology clearly show that knowledge is nothing but information organized in some way (Goldsmith 1990). And in turn, information is just organization of data in some fashion. It is also realized that human consciousness (and even animal consciousness) is capable of organizing these data and can generate information and hence knowledge in some way. Therefore what we call as scientific knowledge is just a subset of this grand concept of knowledge, which can exist in the human consciousness. Because all interpretations of all scientific experiments are ultimately done by human consciousness.

8. Consciousness and its evolution should be a fundamental element of any new paradigm of total systems approach to deal with the modern problems

As order seems to be the most critical factor in the process of development and also order in the brain is most critical which will influence all other type of orders, it is necessary to understand this order and its relation with knowledge and consciousness. Also since knowledge is another crucial concept associated with brain or consciousness, it is equally important to understand the concept of knowledge associated with brain and consciousness. Actually the concept of consciousness is described in biology, psychology, neurobiology and quantum mechanics also. Asimov, (1990) has argued that consciousness will be one of the three subjects on which research will be done in 21st century, other two being environment and astronomy. Philosophically, several Indian schools of thought also talk of consciousness and its evolution. They basically assume that knowledge is structured in the consciousness. Several experimental studies have been carried out to recognize various states of consciousness like sleeping. Waking and dreaming stages. A fourth state of consciousness is well established now (Transcendental Meditation). Many more such studies are required in this direction as Indian yogis and rishies talk of several higher stages of consciousness. Also one finds that in Indian context this evolution of consciousness is closely related with practices which are carried out while living with nature and hence persons deeply involved in such pursuits are very close to nature, so they are strongly helping in preserving the environment (Maharishi Arbindo 2011). This must be recognized in view of the serious threat to the environment caused by uncontrolled materialistic developments. Such ideas of spiritual evolution should be also examined while talking about development.

 

9. Concept of consciousness and knowledge in Jainism

Let us now look at the concept of knowledge in Jainism. In Jainism, world is assumed to be consisting of six elements. They are: Dharmastikaya (Medium of motion), Adharmastikaya (Medium of rest), Akashastikaya (Space), Pudgalastikaya (Matter), Jivastikaya (Living beings having a soul) and Kala (Time). Jainism has defined soul as basic constituents of all living beings. According to the conception of Jainism, a perfect soul has infinite knowledge, infinite intuition, infinite bliss and infinite power. Although perfect soul has other characteristics but the knowledge has been regarded as the chief characteristic of soul. Kundakunda (Mehta 1980) has stated that although from the empirical point of view there is a difference between soul and knowledge yet from the transcendental point of view it is sufficient to say that soul is knower and nothing else. He further said that there is no difference between the knower and his knowledge. From empirical point of view an omniscient (Kevali i.e. a perfect soul) perceives and knows the whole of reality and from the transcendental point of view he perceives and knows nothing. Therefore what we call as scientific knowledge appears to be just a subset of this grand concept of knowledge, which can exist in the human consciousness.

All species may be physically different but are existing in the world from past which does not have any beginning. It is due to their attachment with material particles known as karma that they continuously take birth in the world again and again.The direction of evolution should be towards a goal of liberalizing the soul from all material attachment that is all karmas. A process of selection by oneself is involved in spiritual evolution as certain rules and principles have to be followed described separately for ordinary humans and for enlightened souls like acharyas and sadhu sadhvies etc. It appears that practices like chanting of navkar mantras, loggus, doing samayk, pratikramanaekasna and upwas, aaymbil, varshi tap, mas khaman, updhan, siddhi tap, nanayanuyatras, and other several practices lead to very stable life, increased self-confidence, recognition of inner strength of soul, and ultimately evolution of one’s soul. This is a selection type of process such that it depends more on oneself and is not much affected by other species or human beings present in the environment. It is preached that one should reduce one’s requirements in such a way that even if there is scarcity of resources, lower consumption will guarantee survival of all in a cooperative way. A state of highest orderliness is defined as a pure soul, towards which, everyone has to evolve. This is compatible with GST where definite goals are defined.

 

9.1. Jain concept of Soul has some kind of “Order” built into it

The spiritual path suggested in Jainism and the properties of a worldly soul as it evolved towards a state of perfection has many interesting features which appeals a scientist. Many attributes of such an ordered soul are enunciated and are found in many monks. Thus for example shatabdhanies are found who demonstrate several powers of brain not commonly found elsewhere. It appears that practices like nanayanuyatras, varshi tap, mas khaman, updhan, siddhi tap and other several practices lead to very stable life, increased self-confidence, recognization of inner strength of soul and a highly ordered mental state.

 

10. Three examples which shows that concept of knowledge through consciousness and orderliness should be seriously studied in a modern perspective

We now give three good evidences which shows that there is a need to take the concept of knowledge through consciousness in a very serious way. These examples are given below:

 

10.1 Remarkable memory of Swami Vivekananda

If we look at some meaning of the term consciousness in the scientific perspective than we find that it is a property of all biological systems. When our acharyas, rishies and munies talk of realization of a higher state of consciousness which has certain characteristics, than it is worth examining the following examples. The first concerns with extraordinary sharp memory of Swami Vivekanand (The Life of Swami Vivekanand, Vol II, pp. 634, AdvaitvaAshrama, 1989). As per this Swamiji had such a sharp memory that he almost remembered 11 volumes of Encyclopedia Britannica, which he had just read once. A question is to be raised by the scientific community, “what is the mechanism and how this state of orderliness is achieved and is related to his/her behavior as Yogi?”

 10.2 Shatavdhani: Demonstration of extraordinary capability of memory and sixth sense

It is mention in section 7 that a perfect consciousness with the four infinities perceives everything of the universe simultaneously and completely by a single cognition. However, a worldly soul (an enlightened soul but not yet perfect) can also have rich knowledge contents due to spiritual growth and religious practices. One example of this hypothesis is given below which is called shatavadhan. Shatavadhan (Shat- 100 + Avdhan) is a power to cover 100 different activities in a single act of attention. One who reaches the stage of shatavadhan is called Shatavadhani. A shatavadhani.can remember 100 different things in a 100 different orders, spoken by 100 different people. This unbelievable power has been attained by a handful of people over the human history and because it needs very high stage of spiritual development. This is possible only when one is able to have self-control in order to experience the power of soul. According to the modern scientific belief, a normal human being utilizes hardly 2% to 3% of his total mental potential. A common man can hear and remember serially 3 or 4 at a time. This is based on conscious mind. Anyone with exceptional intellect can extend this number from 3-4 to 10-11. However, taking this number to 100 is beyond the powers of most of the people. Shatavadhan is the ability to receive, retain and retain 100 activities accrued through eyes or ear during one period of attention and carried from the conscious to the subconscious. A Shatavdhani can utilize maximum of mental potential which demands immense concentration. That is the reason that history can name only countable shatavdhanis.

In Jain tradition one can name Shrimad Rajchandra, Guru of Mahatma Gandhi (Kalarthy Mukul, 2004) from whom he learned the concept of ahimsa (non-violence). Shrimad exhibited his mnemonic powers in late 19th Century in Mumbai. Gandhiji had great impact of Shrimad on his religious beliefs. This is also narrated in his autobiography.

The procedure adopted by Shrimadji in giving these demonstrations of his rare powers was indeed most exacting. In one demonstration, he could carried out fifty two activities in a sequence (Appendix 1). He would begin all the fifty-two activities at once, simultaneously. He would attend to a portion of each task at a time. He will then attend another second task, next move on to yet another third task, fourth task, and so on. After some time, he would return to the first task. He would cover these rounds, one after the other, until he had covered all the fifty- two task. He made it a rule not to put down any points on paper while attending to these various activities, nor to take any notes and to ask anyone to repeat anything.

In Samvant 1943 (1887 AD), Shrimadji reached the peak of his achievements in this direction. He was Mumbai at the time. He gave there a demonstration of his powers for simultaneous mental attention, this time covering a hundred different activities. He gave these demonstrations at centers including Faramjee Cowslip Institution at Dhobi Talao in Mumbai. The demonstration of powers to attend to a hundred different activities simultaneously earned him a tremendous amount of admiration all around. People were profoundly impressed by his extra ordinary mental powers. (Author could not get the list of these hundred activities).

After one hundred and twenty five years of performance of Shrimadraj Chandra at the age of 19, another shatavdhani is creating history, again in the same age range. This great young shatavdhani is parampujya yuva shatavdhani muni shri ajitchandrasagarji maharaj sahebji. He can reproduce not only 100 facts but 108 facts in ascending, descending and random order. The details of questions are given in the appendix 1. This demonstration was done twice in Ahmadabad (Nov 16, 2008 and January 9, 2009). The former was held in Town Hall and author was present there. Recently on March 4, 2012, he gave a demonstration of 200 questions, situations and events in Shan Mukhanand Hall in Mumbai and again the author was present there in presence of around 5000 persons. It was a mind boggling experience for a scientific mind.

 10.3 Did ancient Jain Acharyas tried to estimate size of smallest particles of matter

Another example is taken from ancient Jain scriptures (TriloyPannati, Jain RC. 1975) Actually Appendix 3 gives a Table for measurement of length. It starts from smallest particle of matter and goes upto one Yojana. This is an octal system till step 12. It indicates that our ancient Jain acharyas have made an attempt to develop a table for measurement of length in 20 steps. As explained in the Appendix, if we statistically interpret it then we find that as per their assessment, the size of smallest particle of matter is 2.9 x I 0-13 cm. Now the mere fact that this concept might have evolved through a realization of this higher level of consciousness is worth examining. It appears to involve advanced telepathy (known as avadhijnana in Jainism) through which one can see even one pradesha. An acharya who is having this capability must have brain in a very high state of order.

 

 

11. Do spiritual processes help to reduce Entropy Production in biosphere

Form this analysis, we find that Jain acharyas have spiritually ordered mind and if we look at their behavior and daily practices then we find that they consume minimum resources and hence generate least entropy in the environment. As they go to higher and higher stages of evolution, their resources consumptions go on reducing. We seriously feel that the various religious and spiritual practices developed by the ancient Indian seers like Yoga, Meditation, Sadhna and others are all aimed at an overall decrease in the rate of entropy production of this biosphere. Although the processes initiated at an individual level but it expands in the society through the various interlinkages present in the social system. It appears that as the number of persons carrying out these practices increase the average overall rate of entropy production of this biosphere decreases. In addition this may be accompanied by the appearance of a new kind of order which is being described above and could be linked with an orderly state of consciousness. Therefore there is a need to investigate the different states of human consciousness which can be in highly ordered states as mentioned in above sections.

 

12. Darwin’s principle of “Survival of Fittest” vs. Jain’s principle of “Live and Let Live”

The above examples have shown that one should take this concept of evolution of consciousness of Jainism seriously. Hence at this juncture, it is high time that we discuss the process of evolution of soul as described in Jainism and compare it with the Darwin’s principle of evolution.

As we know this principle is based on the rule of natural selection and was brought into lime light by Charles Darwin. An assumption is made that all life emerged from slow evolution from a single ancestor. The basic idea of his hypothesis is that due to limitation on resources, various species of living world struggle for survival. Those which have slightly superior functionality will survive and others which do not have these additional functionalities will be eliminated and the whole process is very slow. Hence those who can adjust with the change in time, survives and others are eliminated. This is therefore being described in short by a well know saying that is “the survival of the fittest. This principle was enunciated by Darwin about 150 years ago. At that time there was no genetics. With this new development, the same principle was termed as Neo Darwinism. Under this name natural selections at genetic level is considered during mutation and those genes are selected which are superior in functionalities. (Wikipedia)

Darwin also talks of evolution of human beings and mammals and observes that all humans have striking similarities with apes and hence humans evolve from apes through natural selection in very slow processes over long time. However, Darwin’s ideas are based on analysis of past data and develop correlations among them to establish some hypothesis. He observes that there are no goals or directions for species to evolve, say like for highly developed species like human beings and animals, which might be partly determined by value system prevalent in the society. etc. They only look at nearby future and attempts to survive. (Wikipedia). However, Darwin’s ideas are based on analysis of past data and develop correlations among them to establish his hypothesis. He finds that there are no goals for species. They only look at nearby future and attempts to survive. (Wikipedia).

 On the other hand, the Jain’s principle of evolution is characterized by the principle of “Live and Let Live” and it emphasizes on recognizing the underlying identity among all living beings.

 

13. The Darwin’s principle of evolution and its impact on society and the environment

At this juncture, it is also necessary to understand the important role of education of The Darwin’s principle of evolution on the society and the environment. Goldsmith (1990) feels that it is due to too much emphasis of the education of this Darwin’s principle of evolution that so much damage has been done to the environment. Dennet (1995) has written a book whose title is Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life put lot of emphasis on designing of morality, the risk involved with the Darwin’s principle of evolution and its education. In view of this situation, there is a need to examine the Jain’s principle of evolution of soul in some details.

 

14. The Jain concept of evolution of consciousness and order

The path of evolution of soul in Jainism is described through fourteen stages, through which one has to pass through before getting liberalized, that is becoming a pure soul from an impure soul that is from material particles known as karmas. These fourteen stages are called fourteen Gunasthanas (Tukol 2009). They are

  1. Mithyatatva,
  2. Sasvadan,
  3. Samyagya,
  4. Mithyatatva Dristhi (Mishra),
  5. Avirat Samyagyadristhi,
  6. Virtavirat (Deshvirati),
  7. PramatSayant,
  8. ApramatSayant,
  9. Nivrati-Badar,
  10. SukshmaSampraya,
  11. Upshantmohniya,
  12. Kshinamohniya,
  13. Sayogikevali,
  14. Ayogikevali.

Guna means characteristics and sthan means a position or situation. It is very interesting to know that the Jain acharyas have gone into great depth to describe these fourteen stages. They are being described through twenty nine parameters, whose details are given in Appendix 4. The logic used in taking up so many parameters is highly impressive and there are several sub categories among these twenty nine categories also. An excellent description is given about movement of a worldly soul from one gunasthan to other ones.

15. Some examples of Order in nature

Now let us understand what we mean by order in the present context. The following examples attempts to illustrate our point of view:

  1. Climatoloical order through precise movement of the Earth around Sun and the Moon around the earth along with proper mix of various gases in atmosphere with a narrow temperature range etc.
  2. Three and up to six seasons on various parts of the Earth, which occur in periodic way.
  3. Agricultural order like crop cycles and their dependence on weather etc.
  4. Various cyclic processes in many biological systems including human systems.
  5. Self-organized structures in brain and our body.
  6. Maintenance of economic order in world economy.
  7. Order in a laser beam
  8. Order in the life supporting systems, (which could be some combination of the above).
  9. and other

 

16. Description of the orderliness among various groups of people in Jainism

After describing the gunasthanas, another formalism exist to describe the state of “Orderliness” among different categories of souls in Jainism. Thus Arihant has twelve characteristics. They are: Anantjnana, Anantdarshan, Anantcharitra, Anant Tap, Anantbalvirya, AnantKshyaiksamyaktva, Vajra Rishabhanarayasahnan, sam-chatur-strasansthan, thirty four ati-shayas, thirty-five properties of voice, one thousand and eight symptoms and Guru of sixty four indras.

Siddha Bhagwan has eight (8) characteristics. Aacharya has thirty six (36) characteristics, Upadhyaya has twenty five characteristics, a sadhu or sadhvi (monk) has twenty seven characteristics. Ordinary household known as shravak and shravika has twenty one characteristics etc.

 

17. Methodology and mechanism developed in Jainism to increase order and reduce entropy

Five main principles of Jainism known as Mahavratas viz. Satya (truth speaking), Asteya (Not to do theft), Ahimsa (Non-violence), Brahamacharya (Celibacy) and Aparigraha (Minimizing materialistic possession) have been developed so as to have a discipline life during all stages of evolution. These are the principles to be followed strictly by monks, aacharyas and higher ups in the ladder of evolution. For ordinary human beings smaller vratas have been defined which are called Anuvratas. These are simplification of the above rules meant to start the process of evolution at a very stage. Thus twelve vratas are there to be followed by shravakas and shravikas. Even the process of evolution is described in details by defining association of a mundane soul with materialistic particles from past. These particles are called karmas and are classified into eight categories. As one’s soul evolves, the number of karmas decreases. It appears that larger the number of karmas associated with a soul, larger will be the uncertainty and so larger will be entropy. A full fledge system of Nava tatva (Nine elements) has been developed to explain the process of reducing the karmas from past and stopping inflow of new karmas. Several rules and practices have been developed to practically implement these vratas like Navkarsi, Porshi, Ekasana, Aayambil, Upwas, upwas for days together, mas khhaman, varshi tap, nanyanuyatra, samayik, pratikramana, posha and many more. To distinguish true knowledge from false knowledge, a concept of three jewels is defined knows as samyagjnaja, samyakdarshan and samayakcharitra etc. Another important concept developed is of three yogas (Manha, Vachan and Kaya) and three karan that bad action should not be done by oneself, should not get it done by others and should not support the other who is doing it. Several sub categories and concepts are given to handle this process in minutest possible details with very extensive description.

18. Theory of Dynamic Controlled Systems versus spiritual control systems of Jainism: Discovery of Higgs Boson and achievements of Rover Robot on Mars versus controls to achieve spiritual evolution

Recently there were two great breakthroughs in the field of science and technology. They are discovery of Higgs Boson, which was discovered through a Large Hadrons Collider (LHC), an experiment conducted below the Earth’s surface. Another was landing of a Robot named as Rover on the surface of Mars. These two experiments are excellent examples of coordinated efforts of several scientists to develop big machines and facilities consisting of a large number of machines interconnected among them through various control systems. They are fascinating examples of great achievements of science and technology. However, all these examples are efforts made by scientists to use computers, satellite communication, robotics and superconductive magnets to have dynamic and functional controls of very high order and sensitivity.

However, let us compare these mechanisms of control systems to the spiritual controls followed by Jain Acharyas, Sadhus and Sadhviyji over their mind and body. To control one’s thoughts and functions of body seems to be as difficult and complex as controlling machines producing Higgs Bosons and the Rover Robot on Mars and connected systems. It appears that if we go further then it may be observed that controlling one’s thoughts and body are much more complex than preparing such huge controlled systems as sensitivity levels and number of parameters in case of human systems are much more complex and sensitive.

19. Concept of Infinite Correlations and its relevance in the present context

The concept of knowledge as we have seen above is a ultimately a property of consciousness. In the modern terminology, it could be translated into a good model of brain in which billions of neurons and synapses are interconnected in a very complicated way at various levels. It will describe various concepts like how data, information and knowledge are stored in the brain. It will also explain how various parameters of brain and functions of body are a result of these interconnectedness. When a person interacts with other persons or it surroundings and or other living objects, there develops still larger of interconnection of one’s neurons with similar number of other’s neurons and synapses. Virtually this will results into almost infinite connections or correlations. It appears that in advanced stages of spiritual evolution, one’s develop larger and larger correlations among his brain and with others including living and non-living systems. Hence ultimately in a state of purity, one can have infinite correlations. Such an idea was proposed by Prof. K P Sinha, former Professor of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

20. Comparison between the Darwin’s principle of evolution and Jain’s concept of evolution:

After defining two type of evolutions in details, we need to compare the two.

  • Darwin’s principle is based on an emphasis on differences among species. Jainism on the other hand first look at the underlying identity of all the species and claims that soul is the underlying identity among all the biological species.

  • Darwin’s principle is based on concept of natural selection that is species which are superior survives whereas those which are inferior with respect to adjustment with the environment and/or availability of resources die out or are eliminated. Jainism says that all living beings wants to evolve and so highly developed species like human beings should support evolution of other species through the principle of non-violence (ahimsa). But here Jains also talk of evolution, but is spiritual, which is accompanied by increase in purity of soul and increase in its knowledge. In spiritual evolution also, one has to be very selective as a very strict discipline is demanded for oneself. A strict set of rules have to be followed to progress along the spiritual path. It is mostly concerned with internal processes and phenomena. However, in this process, they consume minimum resources and hence resources do not have great impact on survival. It is least important which is critical in case of Darwin’s principle.

  • It appears that the various principles and set of rules and regulations developed by ancient Jains are just like control parameters in this huge biosphere which indirectly provides stability of the biosphere on the long time scale and are hence critical conditions required for continuation of life processes on this planet. They also reflect the interdependence of various activities of human beings on different components of the biosphere through the principle of ahimsa.

  • With the discovery of genes, mutation takes place in such a way that new genes are more robust and are transferred to the next generation. However, in Jainism, it is individual soul which leaves a body in one life and goes to another world after leaving the body in one life. As knowledge is major characteristic of the soul, knowledge is carried over to the other birth (as soul never dies even when the body dies).

  • Darwin’s does not talk about any goal in the process of evolution, except for natural selection and the whole evolution could be a set of randomly occurring steps of evolution without following any direction to achieve any goal. Jainism on the other hand talks of Moksha or saiddha Samadhi, which is the target or one’s goal. Hence many uncertainties are reduced.

  • Darwin’s principle is around 150 years old whereas Jain’s principle of evolution is at least 3000 years old and is still found very relevant in the modern time, hence more rigorous research is required in this direction in view.

  • In view of the above principle of Jainism that worshipping of all animal kingdom and plant kingdoms and all natural objects like water, soil, air etc. is encouraged. Hence in Jainism, a concept of “Live and Let live” has evolved, indicating respect for all living beings and aims to define future goal of all living beings. On the other hand the Darwin’s principle of evolution, developed in west is based on the concept of natural selection (now genetic based mutations etc.) and is expressed in form of “survival of the fittest”. This is totally opposite of the Jain principle of “Live and Let Live”. These two opposite thoughts can be reconciled through one argument. It is this, that in the Indian system, the emphasis is on recognizing the underlying identity among all living beings (like unified field theory) whereas in the case of Darwin’s principle of “survival of the fittest” can be traced to an emphasis on the differences among the living beings.

  • As concept of development is closely related with concept of evolution present in a society and the goals of the society. Hence concept of consumerism developed in western world but in Indian system, there is more emphasis on spiritual development whihch automatically reduces consumption of resources.

 

21. Implicate order of Quantum mechanics and consciousness

David Bohm proposed a cosmological order radically different from generally accepted conventions, which he expressed as a distinction between the implicate and explicate order, described in the book (Bohm 1990).

In proposing this new notion of order, Bohm explicitly challenged a number of tenets that are fundamental to much scientific work. The tenets challenged by Bohm include:

  1. That phenomena are reducible to fundamental particles and laws describing the behavior of particles, or more generally to any static (i.e. unchanging) entities, whether separate events in space-time, quantum states, or static entities of some other nature.
  2. Related to (1), that human knowledge is most fundamentally concerned with mathematical prediction of statistical aggregates of particles.
  3. That an analysis or description of any aspect of reality (e.g. quantum theory, the speed of light) can be unlimited in its domain of relevance.
  4. That the Cartesian coordinate system, or its extension to a curvilinear system, is the deepest  conception of underlying order as a basis for analysis and description of the world.
  5. That there is ultimately a sustainable distinction between reality and thought, and that there is a corresponding distinction between the observer and observed in an experiment or any other situation (other than a distinction between relatively separate entities valid in the sense of explicate order).
  6. That it is, in principle, possible to formulate a final notion concerning the nature of reality; e.g. a Theory of Everything.

According David Bohm, in the enfolded [or implicate] order, space and time are no longer the dominant factors determining the relationships of dependence or independence of different elements. Rather, an entirely different sort of basic connection of elements is possible, from which our ordinary notions of space and time, along with those of separately existent material particles, are abstracted as forms derived from the deeper order. These ordinary notions in fact appear in what is called the "explicate" or "unfolded" order, which is a special and distinguished form contained within the general totality of all the implicate orders (Bohm, 1980, p. xv).

In Bohm’s conception of order, then, primacy is given to the undivided whole, and the implicate order inherent within the whole, rather than to parts of the whole, such as particles, quantum states, and continua. For Bohm, the whole encompasses all things, structures, abstractions and processes, including processes that result in (relatively) stable structures as well as those that involve metamorphosis of structures or things. In this view, parts may be entities normally regarded as physical, such as atoms or subatomic particles, but they may also be abstract entities, such as quantum states. Whatever their nature and character, according to Bohm, these parts are considered in terms of the whole, and in such terms, they constitute relatively autonomous and independent "sub-totalities". The implication of the view is, therefore, that nothing is entirely separate or autonomous.

This implicate order of quantum mechanics as interpreted by David Bohm is very close to the Indian concept of consciousness and its relation to the whole world in general and the concept of reality in particular. This is also very close to the concept of Keval Jnana as described in Jainism that is all knowledge disappear in this state and only absolute knowledge is left, which is in agreement with what Bohm is mentioning.

 

22. Conclusions

This paper attempts to explore limitations of scientific methodologies found so successful to study physical systems and infer that are not adequate to understand biological and human systems. Hence a concept of General Systems Theory (GST) is required to develop a unified formalism which includes both physical and biological systems like social systems and human systems. Through this type of approach, even science and religion can be reconciled. It is mentioned that concept of information and knowledge has to be also enlarged by taking the concept of knowledge through consciousness into account. We have to realize that all scientific knowledge is just a small set of knowledge structured in the consciousness. In particular it is shown that Jain’s concept of knowledge through consciousness (soul) can be very useful to have an enlarged concept of knowledge, which can include extra sensory perception (ESP) also. It is shown that Jain concept of evolution in which a soul become more and more pure and its knowledge contents increases, so it becomes more and more orderly. Hence it is argued that such processes of spiritual evolution may be accompanied by decrease in rate of entropy production at different levels. Some examples of order are given like those of Swami Vivekananda to illustrate the meaning of this order. Two more examples from Jainism are given which show extra ordinary states of mind in highly ordered states of satavdhanies. In another example, it is shown that ancient Jain Acharyas might have even tried to estimate the sizes of the smallest particles of matter like atoms and nuclei through highly advanced telepathy. It shows existence of telepathy of very high order. A comparison is also made between working of dynamic control systems of non-living and living types. It is suggested that knowledge can be linked with improved correlation among clusters of neurons and the synapses.

It is also mentioned that the Jain principle of “Live and Let Live” should be compared with the Darwin’s principle of evolution described by “Survival of the fittest”. The difference between the two will have totally different impact on the concept of development and the society in general and direction of evolution in particular. The Jain concept of evolution is then mentioned to indicate that their concept of fourteen stages of evolution of soul (Gunasthans) is a very exciting concept and needs further exploration

It is then mentioned that a new world view provided by the concept of Implicate Order of quantum mechanics as enunciated by David Bohm is also relevant here and can provide an alternative view to look at the reality. This implicate order could be closely related with Jain’s concept of KevalJnana.

This is an exploratory study only and is an example of multi disciplinary work where many loosely defined terms are used. They need to be further explored.

 

23. Acknowledgement

I am extremely grateful to several Jain Acharyas whose preachings, darshan and their life styles and blessings have highly motivated me to take up this type of work. The list is unending but some prominent ones are late Acharyashri Ganesh Lalji Maharasa, Late Shri Nana Lalji Maharasa, Late Acharya Shri Tulsi Maharasa, Acharya Shri Mahapragnyaji, Acharya Shri Kanaknandji Maharasa, Acharya Shri Rajyash Surishwarji Maharasa, Prof. Maharasa, Acharya Shri Nandi Ghosh Vijayji Maharasahab, Upacharya Shri Gyan Sagarji Maharasahab, Late Shri Mahesh Yogiji and many other Jain and Hindu Sadhuji and Sadhvijies who have been my inspiration.

I am very happy to thank Prof. H. Fröhlich; F.R.S. (England), (who has referred some of the above work to Prof. B.D. Josephson, Noble Laureate), Prof. E.C.G. Sudarshan (Texas, USA), Late Prof Richard Feynman, (whose books on physics have helped me a lot in better understanding of laws of nature). Prof. K.P. Sinha (Bangalore), Prof. C.L. Mehta (I.I.T. Delhi), Late Prof. D.S. Kothari (Delhi), Shri M.V. Murthy (Udaipur but currently at Bangalore), Prof. Jatkar (Poona), Late Prof. E.P. Wigner, Late Prof. Dalsukhbhai Malvaniya Sahab for interesting correspondence, discussion and sending highly critical comments with appreciation about some of the above work. I am also thankful to Late Dr. U.N. Upadhyay, Dr. K.C. Sogani, Dr. L.K. Kothari, Prof. Narendra Bhandari, Prof. Rajmal Jain, Shri Jitendra Shah, Dr. Sudhir Shah, Shri Sanjeev Sogani, Dr. N.L. Kachhara, Late Shri H.S. Sarupria, Shri F.C. Mehta and Shri D.L. Mehta for their keen interest in this work. However, this work was possible only because of sanskars which I got from my parents Shriman Balwant Singhji Sahab Pokharna, my Baiji Shrimati Lehar Kunwar Pokharna, my grandmother Shrimati Bhur Baiji Pokharna, my Bhuwasa Shrimati Mohan Devi ji Chowdhry, Phuphasa Shriman Daulat Singhjji Chowdhry, my elder brother Shri Jagat Singhji Pokharna, my wife Sunanda Pokharna and several relatives and friends.

 


 

24. References

  • Asimov, I., "The Next Frontiers of Science" in 18-Mar-91, People Magazine Science (Mar. 18, 1991).

  • Bertalanffy, Ludwig Von General Systems Theory, Foundation, Development, and Applications, Amazon Publishers, 1976
  • Bohm, D "Wholeness and the Implicate Order" by Rontledge&Kegan Paul, London, 1980.
  • Brudy Rocker, "Infinity and the Mind: The Science and Philosophy of Infinite", Bantam, New Age Books for Gödel’s theorems and Consciousness etc. 1983.
  • David, Bohm, Quantum theory, Prentice Hall (1951).
  • Goldsmith, E., "Evolution, Neo-Darwan-ism and the Paradigm of Science" in The Ecologist, Vol 20, No.2, p.67, 1990.
  • Henry Margenu, D. Reidel, Physics and Philosophy, Selected essays, 1978
  • Jain G R Cosmology old and new.
  • KalarthyMukul, ShrimadRajchandra, A Biography, Abridged, Book-I, Translated by Digish Mehta, ShrimadRajchandra Ashram, Agas (page 19), 2004
  • Mehta M L, Outlines of Jain Philosophy, Mission Society, Bangalore.
  • Gupta R C, Indian Journal of History of Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, 38 (1975).
  • Penrose R, Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and the Laws of Physics, London, Vintage, (1990).
  • Pokharna Surendra Singh, A new investigation into the problem of perfect determinism in modern science- Indian Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 1, Jan. 1985.
  • Pokharna Surendra Singh, The convergence of the modern science toward Jainism, Sambodhi, 6, 1977, 15, LD Institute of Indology.
  • Pokharna S S. Understanding the problem of conservation of natural resources and the environment from first principle: Extension of General Systems Theory is required in many areas, Presented at a 2 days conference on Dynamic Systems and Control held at, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (Nov.28-29, 1991).
  • Pokharna S S (1995) Environmental issues and sustainable development: Need to study the human-environment interaction using General Systems Theory, presented in the UN sponsored Inter. Conf. on Environment, Sustainable Development and Human health, being organized by the Banaras Hindu University, Banaras (Feb 11-15, 1995)

  • Pokharna Surendra Singh (1987) Some fundamental problems of biology, sociology, psychology, parapsychology, religion and spirituality: a systems approach- The Vedic Path, Quarterly. Journal,: Vedic Indo, & Science and Research, Volume L, 1, June 1987.

  • Pokharna Surendra Singh (2006), Science and spirituality, Proc. of a Two days seminar held at Kurushektra University, Kurushektra, Nov 4-5, 2006

  • Sri Aurobindo, The Divine life upon Earth: The Future Evolution of Man, Selection from the works of Sri Aurobindo, compiled with a summary and notes by P B Saint-Hilaire, Sri AurobindoAashram Press, Pondicherry (India) 2011



 

Appendix 1. List of Activities that could be carried by Shri Raichandji one after the other without using any pen or paper

 

1.

To play the game of chopat, a kind of checkerboard, with three different players

1

2.

To play cards with three different persons

1

3.

To play chess with one person

1

4.

To keep a tally of the chimes of a Zalar a small gong

1

5.

To Keep computing sums mentally invoking addition, Subtraction, multiplication and division

4

6.

To count the beads on a thread

1

7.

To compose verses on sixteen diverse topics selected afresh, and in metrical forms chosen by various referees

16

8.

To answer about eight new riddles

8

9.

To recall four hundred words given at random from languages including Greek, English, Sanskrit, Arabic, Latin, Urdu, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali, rearranging them in proper order such as subject, object etc. all the while attending to various other matters.

16

10.

To explain certain things to a student

1

11.

Commentary on certain items of figures of speech

2

 

Total activities =

52

 


 

Appendix 2. Details of one hundred questions answered in same sequence by Shri Ajay Chandra Sagarji Maharasahab.

 

01-10

One Line sentences may be in questioners form

11-20

Words of Wisdom in a sentence of 5 to 7 words

21

First line of a Sanskrit Shloka

22-30

Synonym or Antonym in Gujarati

31

Second line of the same Sanskrit Shloka

32-40

Idioms

41

Third line of Sanskrit Shloka

42-50

Any first line of the same Sanskrit Shloka

52-60

Names of any priest, religious book or religious place

61

A mathematical puzzle

62-70

Name of any philosopher, scientist or patriotic person

71

First part of 16 Blocks- mathematical miracle

72-80

See and Remember (Darshan Avadhan)

81

Second part 16 blocks- mathematical miracle

82-90

See and Remember (Darshan Avadhan)

91

Blocks- Mathematical miracle

92-99

Mathematical calculation with 8 persons

100

Day of the Birthday

101-104

A line from Religious, cultural or patriotic song

105-108

Shloka from Jain Aagams

 


 

Appendix 3. Table of Measurement of Length as Found in the Jaina Literature

 

(1)

 Infinitely many parmāņus 

=

1 Avasannasannaskhandha

(2)

 8 Avasannasanna units 

=

1 Sannasannaskandha

(3)

 8 Sannasanna units 

=

1 Trutreņu

(4)

 8 Trutreņu units 

=

1 Trasareņu

(5)

 8 Trasareņu units 

=

1 Rathareņu

(6)

 8 Rathareņu units 

=

1 Uttamabhogbhūmibālāgra

(7)

 8 U. b. b. units 

=

1 Madhyamabhogbhūmibālāgra

(8)

 8 M. b. b. units 

=

1 Jaghanyabhogbhūmibālāgra

(9)

 8 J. b.b. units 

=

1 Karma bhūmibālāgara

(10)

 8 K. b. b. units 

=

1 Liksā

(11)

 8 Liksā units 

=

1 Yūkā

(12)

 8 Yūkā 

=

1 Yava (Barley corn)

(13)

 8 Yava units 

=

1 Angula (Finger breadth)

(14)

 6 Angula units 

=

1 Pāda

(15)

 2 Pāda units 

=

1 Vitasti

(16)

 2 Vitasti units 

=

1 Hasta (Forearm)

(17)

 2 Hasta units 

=

1 Rikku or Kisku

(18)

 2 Kisku units 

=

1 Daņda or Dhanus (Bow)

(19)

 2000 Daņdas units 

=

1 Krosa

(20)

 4 Krosa units 

=

1 Yojana

 

Here a parmāņu has been defined as the smallest particle of matter having no length, no breadth and no height. This is defined as a particle which can be only thought of but is not practically perceivable. The particle which is perceivable is a group of parmānus. The smallest of such skandha is an avasannasannaskandha. Let us therefore estimate its size by roughly taking the average size of a finger to be equal to 2 cm. We can therefore write the following simple formula by using the above table:

2 cm = 812 x size of avsannasannaskandha
Therefore size of avsannasannaskandha = 2 x 8 -12 cm. = 2.9 x 10-11 cm.

Hence the size of smallest particle of matter that is avsannasannaskandha is around 2.9 x 10-11 cm. This value lies in between the size of a modern atom (10-8 cm) and size of a nuclei (10-13 cm). Now we may nobe knowing the meanings of many of the objects used in this Table. But statistically, this is a very significant observation and should be taken quite seriously by the scientists. At least it cannot be ignored. The mere fact that it was arrived at from the telepathy of advance level through which one can see even the smallest particle of space known as a pradesha in Jainsim. This again shows that Jain concept of knowledge should be taken very seriously by the scientific community and should be further explored in a careful way.

 


 

Appendix 4.Twenty Nine characteristics of fourteen gunasthanas

 

S#

Hindi name of Characteristic

English translation

Number of varieties

1

Nam Dwar

Name

14

2

Lakshan Dwar

Characteristics

 

3

Stithi Dwar

Time wise situation

3

4

Kriya Dwar

Activities

25

5

Satta Dwar

Status of Karmas

 

6

Bandh Dwar

Binding of karmas

 

7

Uday Dwar

Activation of karma

 

8

Udirna Dwar

Bringing of karmas outside from Udayavalika to Udayavali and having an experience with karmas of

 

9

Nirjara Dwar

Detachment of karmas

 

10

Bhav Dwar

Type of feelings

5

11

Karan Dwar

Reasons for going into Gunasthana

5

12

Parishah Dwar

Characteristics (Painful)which are tolerable but required so as not to move away from true path

22

13

Aatma

Type of souls (in association with karmas

8

14

Jeev

Life types (human, animal, insect etc)

14

15

Gunasthanas

A Interpretation: Basic characteristics

24

 

 

B: Possible sequences of gunasthanas in which a jiva may pass through

7

16

Yoga Dwar

Movement/Fluctuations in Atma’s pradeshas due to man, vachan and kaya

13

17

Upyoga Dwar

 

6

18

Leshya Dwar

Lesshya types

6

19

Hetu Dwar

Reasons for going into certain gunasthanas

57

20

Margana Dwar

Number of ways in which a jiva can come and go from to Gunasthan

 

21

Dhyan Dwar

Concentration of Chita

4

22

Dandak Dwar

 

24

23

Jivyoni Dwar

Number of species

84 lakhs

24

Nimit Dwar

Indirect(supporting) reason for an event to occur

 

25

Charitra

Good moral charactriestics

3

26

Aakarsh Dwar

Number of times a person can come to a gunasthana in one or many births

 

27

Samkit Dwar

Samyaktva

4

28

Antar Dwar

Time in which a person comes back to gunasthana after going out from this

 

29

Alpa Bahutva Dwar

Number of species in a gunasthana

 

 

 

 

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