Selected Speeches on Prakrit and Jainology ► Preliminaries ► A Note on Transliteration and Pronunciation

Posted: 23.05.2012

While employing deśi, Sanskrit and Prakrit words, care is taken to use diacritic marks.


is pronounced as the equivalent of the 'ch' sound in English chuck. It is non-aspirate, and palatal.


is pronounced as above, but is aspirate and palatal.

ḍ (D):

cerebral, pronounced as the equivalent of' ’d' in dear.

ḷ (L):

is formed by curling back the tongue, forcibly striking the under part of it against the roof of the mouth.

ś (S):

palatal, pronounced as 'sh'

ṣ (sh):

retroflex, pronounced as 'sh'

In addition to employing early method of ā, ī, ū, ṭ, ḍ, ṇ, ḷ, another popular method of substituting it with capital letters is employed:

ā, ī, ū, ṭ, ḍ, ṇ, ḷ:

A, I, U, T, D, N, L

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