Anekant: Views And Issues ► [02] The Axioms Of Non-Absolutism ► The concomitance Of Identity And Difference Of Substance And Modes

Posted: 30.11.2009

'Knowledge is the defining characteristic of a soul.'[17] Here the soul-substance and the knowledge-quality are given from the stand­point of difference. On the other hand, it has also been said that what is designated as the soul is the knower, or conversely what is designated as the knower is the soul.[18] Such Agamic texts assert the identity of soul and knowledge.

The earth is a substance and a pot is its mode. A pot is made of earth and as it cannot be produced without it, it is identical with the earth. The earth cannot exercise the function of holding water before it is transformed into a pot which, therefore, is functionally different from earth.[19] A pot is a product and earth is its material cause; in other words earth is the substance of which the pot is a mode. The relation between the substance and its mode is identity-cum-difference. It, therefore, follows that an effect and a cause are related through identity-cum-difference.

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