Jain Legend : Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2) ► Introduction to Dwādaśāṃgī

Posted: 05.05.2016

Preface of Dwādaśāṃgi is found in Samavāyāṃga and Nandi Sūtra. In the ancient literature of both the sects the sequence of Dwādaśāṃgī is given as follows:

  1. Ācārāṃga,
  2. Sūtrakṛtāṃga,
  3. Sthānāṃga,
  4. Samavāyāṃga,
  5. Vyākhyāprajṅapti,
  6. Jnātādharmakathā,
  7. Upāsaka Daśā,
  8. Aṃtagaḍa Daśā,
  9. Anuttaropapātika Daśā,
  10. Praśna Vyākaraṇa,
  11. Vipāka Sūtra and
  12. Dṛṣṭivāda

1. Ācārāṃga

The following topics are discussed in detail in Ācārāṃga: the rules and regulations of conduct for monks (Śramaṇa community), Gocarī (alms begging tours), Vinaya (reverence to elders) the fruits of vinaya like obliteration of Karma, Kāyotsarga (relaxation), posture of meditation, sitting-standing, sleeping, walking, roaming, food, water, restrictions regarding possession of essentials, finding out about right food / water etc., and reverence to the implements, self-study, Pratilekhana etc., five carefulness's (samiti), three restraints (guptis), unblemished bed, amenity, bowl, implements, clothes, austerities, host of vows, fasting, resolutions (abhigraha), Ācāmla etc., the five as i.e. jṅānācāra, darśanācāra, caritrācāra, tapācāra and Viryācāra and tapa during the study of Aṃgopāṃga- all are properly explained.

In a sequential point of view, Ācārāṃgastands first in Aṃgas. It is called as Prathama Aṃga as it is the vital Ācāra (conduct) of Śruta puruṣa (Monk / Saints).

It is said that Ācārāṃga has 2 divisons (Śruta skaṇdhas), 25 chapters (Adhyayanas), 85 topics (Uddeśanakāla) and 85 sub topics (Samuddeśanakālas). Ācārāṃga consists of 18000 verses. 85 topics and 85 subtopics are taken into consideration. 25 Adhyāyānātmaka Ācārāṃga has totally 85 topics for both the Śruta skaṇdhas. The contents were written in both text and verse forms. So the Ācārāṃga is considered as text and verse Aṃga Śāstra. At present the number of verses in Ācārāṃga in form of two Śrutaskaṇdhas is 2500. Verses (gāthās)

The first Śruta skaṇdha of Ācārāṃga is Nava Brahmacarya and it has the following nine chapters:

  1. Śastraparijṅā,
  2. Lokavijaya,
  3. Śītoṣṇīya,
  4. Samyaktva,
  5. Lokasāra,
  6. Dhūta,
  7. Mahāparijṅā,
  8. Vimokṣa and
  9. Upadhānaśruta.

In the ninth Adhyayanātmaka first Śruta skaṇdha five types of Ācāras (kinds of conduct) - jṅānācāra, darśanācāra, caritrācāra, tapācāra and Vīryācāra are described.

Thus, in the first Śruta skaṇdha, there are nine chapters and 51 topics. As Mahāparijṅā chapter and its seven topics were lost, only 8 chapters and 44 topics are available now.

In the first Śruta skaṇdha of Ācārāṃga, philosophical and fundamental matters are discussed. So Sūtra style was adopted. In the second Śruta skaṇdha, the behavior of monks from each and every aspect had to be edified. So the adopted style was simple and easy to understand.

As Mahāparijṅā, the seventh chapter of the first Śruta skaṇdha of Ācārāṃga Sūtra was lost only two Śruta skaṇdhas, 24 chapters and 78 topics are available now.

The text advocates the true and ideal humane doctrines like universal brotherhood and describes them in a lively manner. So Ācārāṃga's reputation is not restricted to Dwādaśāṃga only but it has also gained a prominent and high place even in all Dharma Śāstras.

Were the two Śruta skaṇdhas of Ācārāṃga compiled by gaṇadharas or not?  If the number of the verses is 18000, does the number indicate combined number of both the Śruta skaṇdhas or does it just imply the first Śruta skaṇdha's only? Do Niśītha and other Cūlikās belong to second Śrutaskaṇdha or not? The derivations are:

  1. The two Śruta skaṇdhas of Ācārāṃga were written by Gaṇadharas during the time of compilation of Dwādaśāṃgī. In Āgamas, the number of verses of Ācārāṃga was given as 18000. This naturally implies that the two Śruta skaṇdhas of Ācārāṃga together have 18000 verses, but not just the first Śrutaskaṇdha.
  2. A conclusion was derived by the authors of Niryukti etc. on the basis of the fact that basically the second Śruta skaṇdha consists of Paṃcacūlās (five sections) and was written after the composing of canons period by the elder-monks. Secondly, attributing that all the 18000 verses belong to the first Śruta skaṇdha and ascribing the status of the original Ācārāṃga to it, is baseless, fictitious and inconsiderable as it does not have any evidence either in Āgama as or in other literature.
  3. The opinion prevalent in present times about the nature of the second Śruta skaṇdha is that it was divided into four sections. As it was not supported by any Śāstras, the opinion should not be taken into consideration. Ācārāṃga never had or has a section. From the period of Āgama scriptures till the establishment of Chedasūtra of Niśītha, the twentieth Prābhṛta, which was known as Ācāra, of the third Vāstu of ninth Pūrva, might have been considered as the Cūlikā of Ācārāṃga. In course of time that Prābhṛta was enshrined as Niśītha Chedasūtra and from then onwards Niśītha was considered as the Cūlikā of Ācārāṃga. In spite of all these phenomena the number of verses of Prābhṛta was never considered as included in the verses of Ācārāṃga or in the verses of Niśītha.

Status and significance of Ācārāṃga

Right conduct is the instrument which helps to elevate life, and forms the bedrock for spiritual-exertion (Sādhanā) and in turn is a path to monks. Hence, Ācārāṃga enjoys an esteemed status in Jain literature.

It describes the quality of  nonexistent (Asat) which is a hindrance in the attainment of Mokṣa, imparts the knowledge of existent 'Sat' which is very helpful and valuable for attaining Mokṣa, and counsels to sacrifice and abandon the Heya (worthy of giving up) and to embrace the conduct of Upādeya (worthy of practicing). From this point of view, Ācārāṃga occupies the most prominent place and hence it was given the first place in the preface to Dwādaśāṃgī in Samavāyaṃga and Nandi Sūtra.

The authors of Niryukti explained that Ācārāṃga propounded the ways and means to attain salvation and this is the essence of Pravacana (sermon of omniscient or doctrine). So it was granted with the first place in the listing of Dwādaśāṃgī.

All the Tīrthaṃkaras of the remote past preached the principles of Ācārāṃga. The present Tīrthaṃkaras who reside in Mahāvideha also first follow and preach Ācārāṃgaand later the remaining eleven and the same procedure will also be followed by the Tīrthaṃkaras of future generation. Even Gaṇadharas also compile, following the same convention. This illustrates the supremacy of Ācārāṃga.

Āgama literature provided many substantial evidences that only the sage who was well-versed in Ācārāṃga was considered fit to become Upādhyāya (holy teacher) or ācārya (holy preceptor). It was compulsory for monks and female monks to study Ācārāṃga. Besides, a provision was also made to give a minor punishment to those who study other scriptures without thoroughly studying Ācārāṃga, which was four months of repentence (Prāyaścita). Apart from this, both Monks and Female monks who could not gain the knowledge of Ācārāṃga were not assigned any responsibility (position in the congregation). These facts reveal the status enjoyed by Ācārāṃga.

2. Sūtrakṛtāṃga

Sūtrakṛtāṃga is the second Āgama of the Dwādaśāṃgī. Allotted the second place after the Ācārāṃga, it is said in Samavāyāṃga that this Āgama deals with the tenets of Jainism and other religions, soul and nonsoul objects, merit-demerit, Karmic influx (āsrava), spiritual path (Samvara), dissociation of karma (Nirjarā), bondage (Bandha) liberation (Mokṣa) etc. and beneficial preaching to the newly initiated persons. It consists of the debates of 108 Action oriented (Kriyāvādī) doctrines, 84 Inaction (Akriyāvādī) doctrines, 76 Ignorance (Ajṅānavādi) doctrines and 32 Humility /veneration (Vinayavādī) doctrines. Thus, it discussed about 363 other doctrines. Analysing and reviewing all these doctrines, it is concluded that non-violence is the keystone of any religion and is the best attribute.

Sūtra kṛatāṃga has 2 Śruta skaṇdhas. The first Śruta skaṇdha has 16 and the second has 7 lectures; in all 23 chapters, 33 topics, 33 sub topics and 36000 verses.

After the 23rd chapter, the text portrays the debate between Indrabhūti Gautama and Pāśrvapatya Paiḍhālaputra. It also illustrates how Pedalaputra renounced the Cāturyāmidharma (with four major vows) and took up Paṃca-mahāvrata (fivefold major vows) Dharma after listening to the enlightened preaching from Indrabhūti Gautama.

Sūtra kṛatāṃga virtually serves as a guide for spiritual-practitioner to acquire philosophical knowledge. Studying, analysing, recollecting and Nididhyāsana of this Āgama are a must for a sage. This Āgama encourages implementing the high spiritual principles in life, to abandon all other beliefs, practice humility, which is the highest virtue, and to lead an ideal ascetic life. From a philosophical point of view, this Āgama brought into light the then way of thinking in an impressive manner. The beautiful and substantive analysis of spiritual subjects presented in this text with examples & illustrations, helps to understand the pattern of Indian life, philosophy and spirituality.

3. Sthānāṃga

Sthānāṃga occupies the third place in Dwādaśāṃgī. A compendium of topics like self-same (Svasamaya), non-selfsame (Parasamaya), Svapara - Ubhayasamaya, Jīva-Ajīva, and Loka-Aloka are discussed in this canon. It consists of one Śruta skaṇdha, 10 chapters, 21 topics, 21 sub topics and 72000 verses. The available text of this Sūtra has 3770 verses.

This Sūtra describes certain events that occurred after the nirvāṇa of Mahāvīra, from second to sixth century. To arrive at an opinion that therefore the Sthānāṃga was not written by a Gaṇadhara, but by some later ācārya, is not justified at all. On this, two points are to be specially considered. The first being, great knowledgeable author of the Sūtra, predicted some of the future events well in advance. For example, in the ninth place of Sthānāṃga, the life of Mahāpadama, the future Tīrthaṃkara of the next Utsarpiṇi Kāla has been described. The second point is that during the Āgama Vācanā, Skandilācārya and Devārdhigaṇī recorded as the Āgama text what was earlier traditionally kept in memory (Śruta - Paraṃparā). It is possible that, while recording, the essence of the original text was safely retained and some essential addition might have been made keeping in view the occasion / time.

Various places / tenets (sthānas) of the religion are dealt with in a numerical order from one to ten in this volume. Sthānāṃga is considered as very significant owing to its in-depth subject matter and 'Nayajṅāna' (the knowledge of viewpoints). The Koṣa-style (compendium) adopted in this text is of great use and thought-provoking. The Spiritualpractitioner who is able to understand the profound meanings of this text is called Śruta Sthavira.

4. Samavāyāṃga

This occupies the fourth place in Dwādaśāṃgī. It comprises one Śruta skaṇdha, one chapter, one topic, only one sub topic and 144000 verses. The text available now has only 1667 Slokas. All the elements of the living souls (Jeev), of three lokas - earth, heaven and the nether world, classified on the basis of Dravya (substance), Kṣetra (land or region), Kāla (time) & Bhāva (thought or mode) are arraṃged in numerical groups from one to infinity and introduced in an important manner. The multitude of topics included are philosophical theories, matters related to Tīrthaṃkaras, Gaṇadharas, Cakravartīs and Vasudevas, subjects like Bhūgarbha (geology), Bhūgola (geography), Khagola (astronomy), interesting facts of sun, moon, stars and planets etc. Thus it provides very useful material.

In Samavāyaṃga, Jīva (living being), matter (Pudgala), principle of motion (Dharma), principle of rest (Adharma), space (Ākāśa) etc. are described under the category of substance (Dravya); similarly conditions of celestial angels, human beings, animals and purgatory etc., were classified under Kṣetra; under the heading of time (Kāla) were pit measured period (Palyopama), ocean measured period (Sāgaropama), etime cycle of ascending happiness (Utsarpiṇi), time cycle of decreasing happiness (Avasarpiṇi), Pudgala-Parāvartana etc. Jīva-bhavas (modes or thoughts) such as knowledge (Jṅāna), intuition (Darśana), and energy (Vīrya) etc., Ajīva Bhava are categorized varṇa(colour),gaṃdha (smell), rasa (taste), sparśa (touch) / Guru Laghu (heavy & light) etc.

After discussing elaborately from first Samavāya till the infinite, at the conclusion, the contents of all the twelve Aṃgas have been summarised under the title of "gaṇīpiṭaka".

The description of Samavaśaraṇa and the Kulakaras of past Utsarpiṇi and Avasarpiṇi, and Kulakaras and their wives of the present Avasarpiṇis of Bharatakṣetra in Jambū dwīpa, and twenty four Tīrthaṃkaras of the present Avasarpiṇi were also elucidated.

Necessary information about the Cakravartīs, Baladevas and Vāsudevas and mere names of Prativāsudevas were given. Prativāsudevas were not considered as and caterogised under great people in Samavāyaṃga.

After this, appears the detailed description of twenty four Tīrthaṃkaras of present Avasarpiṇi of Airāvata region in Jambū dwīpa, seven Kulakaras of future Utsarpiṇi of Bharata region, ten Kulakaras of future Utsarpiṇi of Airāvata region and the twenty four Tīrthaṃkaras Baladevas and Vāsudevas of future Utsarpiṇi Kāla of both Bharata and Airāvata regions and the names of Prativāsudevas were given.

Each and every Samavāya, every Sūtra, every topic in itself is like a repository of knowledge which provides valuable information to the researchers and to the seekers of knowledge. At the conclusion, the contents of all the Aṃgas have been summarised and this last part is known as Abridged Jain Pūrāṇa. If Samavāyaṃga is evaluated from the perspective of ultimate knowledge (Vastu Vijṅāna), Jain doctrines, theories and Jain history, it can definitely be considered as a significant Śrutang.

5. Vyākhyāprajṅapti

Also known as the Bhagavatī Sūtra, it is regarded as the fifth Aṃga and deals with the tenets of Jainism like Jīva, Ajīva, Jīvā-jīva, Svasamaya, Parasamaya, Svapara-samaya, Loka-Aloka and, Lokāloka in an elaborate manner. This scripture consists of one Śruta skaṇdha, 111 chapters, 10,000 topics, 10,000 sub topics, 36,000 questions and answers and 2,88,000 verses. It is a paradigm of the description, representation and exposition of the reflections expressed by Lord Mahāvīra.

'Adhyayana / chapter' of Vyākhyāprajṅapti is famous as 'śataka'. The present text extends to 41 śatakas, of which 8 śatakas and 105 Avantaras are śatākatmakas. Thus the combined figure of śataka and Avāntara śataka is (41-8) +105 = 138 and the number of Uddeśas is 1886. In comparison with other Aṃgas, this is a bulky Aṃga. Presently the complete verse has 15751 ślokas. Vyākhyāprajṅapti is also called Viyāha Pannati, Vivāha Pannati and Vibāha Pannati.

The 5th Aṃga - Vyākhyāprajṅapti is in the form of questions and answers - Lord Mahāvīra replying to the questions of Indrabhūti Gautama. This voluminous text is available in a dialogue form. According to Vṛttikāra Abhayadeva the number of questions and answers is given as 36,000. Out of these, many of the questions and answers are very short while many are very lengthy. For example, the entire 15 śataka is an answer to the question about Maṃkhaliputra Gośālaka.

Elaborate information about the life of Lord Mahāvīra, his disciples, devotees, the followers of other faiths, and their beliefs is available in this text. The amount of information about Gośālaka found in this text is not found in any other text.

Apart from this, the two fierce wars 'Mahā śilākaṇtaka' and 'Rathmūsala' between the kings Kūṇika and Ceṭaka were described in graphic detail. According to this text, 74 lakhs and 96 lakhs soldiers respectively were killed in these two great wars from both sides.

The classification of plants provided in 21st and 23rd śatakas of Vyākhyāprajṅapti is unparallel. Thus, this text is extolled as the storehouse of knowledge that provides information about a plethora of topics, which, from the perspective of Jain doctrines, history, geography and politics, is very much significant. The text is applauded as the key to spiritualism. It also described elaborately the then cultural, social and political conditions, in an unbiased way.

6. Jnātādharmakathā

The Sanskrit name for 'Naya Dhamakaho' is jṅātādharmakathā. It is the sixth text of the Aṃga series. The text narrates religious stories, citing examples. It deals with a multitude of topics like - the cities, gardens, auspicious instalatation (Caityas), forests, kings, parents, Samavaśaraṇas (holy conference / congregation hall), Dharmācāryas (religious preceptors / leaders), religious parables, mundane and spiritual prosperity, luxury (Bhoga), sacrifice (Parityāga), Pravrajyā (initiation), severe austerities, achieving prious death (e.g. Paryāya Saṃlekhanās, Bhakta Pratyākhyāna, Pādopagamana, svargagamana (going to heaven)), birth in high family, enlightment, last-rites (Antaha) of Meghakumāra etc. It also describes about spiritual-practitioners who,  though got initiated into the humility - dominated best path of Lord Mahāvīra, while following the vows, became weak, laid-back and discouraged, gave into sensual pleasure and violated the primary and  subsidiary vows. This Aṃga also consists of the life of those forbearing spiritual-practitioners who though encountering worst situations, never deviated even a little, from the path of abstinence.

It has two Śruta skaṇdhas. The first Śruta skaṇdha has 19 chapters and the second has 10 groups (Vargas). The two together have 29 topics 29 sub topics and 5, 86,000 verses. The present available text has 5500 verses. The life of people during the regime of Pārśvanātha, different births and rebirths, the then traditions and conventions, boat-relating, things of comfort, mode of imprisonment, administration of a kingdom, cultural, economic, social and religious conditions etc. are discussed in a picturesque manner.

7. Upāsaka Daśā

As the name suggests 'uvāsagadasāo', the seventh Aṃga describes about the ten devotees (layman - householders). Its chapters are also ten, and so the name is appropriate.

It has 1 Śruta skaṇdha, 10 chapters, 10 topics and 10 sub topics. It comprises of thousands of verses. Presently the quantity of this Āgama is 812 verses (ślokas).

Its ten chapters describe the life of individual votaries like Anand et al. pertaining to different castes and professions.

The names of ten householders mentioned in ten adhyayanas are as follows:

  1. Ānanda Gāthāpati,
  2. Kāmadeva,
  3. Culanīpitā,
  4. Surādeva,
  5. Culla Śataka,
  6. Kuṇḍakaulika,
  7. Kumbhakāra Śakadālaputra,
  8. Mahā Śataka,
  9. Nandinīpitā, and
  10. Sālihīpitā.

All these upāsakas described in the scriptures are householders following the twelve vows (Vratas). Except Mahāśataka, all others had only one wife each. For 14 years each of them abided the holy vows meant for the householder and during the fifteenth year, with an intention to get closer to asceticism (Śramaṇa dharma), they entrusted the household responsibilities to their eldest sons,  while still in the garb of a householder, slowly & steadily relinquished all their previous possessions and finally as a mendicant (Śramaṇabhūta), by thought, word and deed (Trikaraṇa) and controlling all the three types of activities (Triyoga), they practised spiritual-exertion (sādhanā) to renounce their sins.

The practice of Ānanda went on without any hurdles, but the other upā Śakas - right from Kāmadeva to Śakadālaputra, had impediments (upasarga) by celestial beings while Mahā Śataka had impediments by a woman. All of them had followed the votary (Śrāvaka) Dharma up to twenty years and attained good death and good next life (sadgati) and in their very next birth they would be born in Mahāvideha and attain liberation (Mokṣa).

This seventh text, which enumerates the household duties of śrāvakas and śrāvikās (men & women votaries) expediently, is helpful for every householder. If every householder tries to adhere to the virtuous deeds, illustrated in this text, then it could be a boon for mankind.

8. Aṃtagaḍadaśā

The eighth text is Aṃtagaḍadaśā or Antakṛta daśā. This consists of one Śruta skaṇdha, 8 Vargas, 90 chapters, 8 topics and 8 sub topics and limited discourses. There are about thousands of verses. Presently, this Aṃga Śāstra is of 1900 verses. These are divided into eight sections which have 10, 8, 13, 10, 10, 26, 13 and 10 chapters respectively. As the present Sūtra describes the state of practice of spiritual purification by practitioners, who ended the cycle of their birth and death, it is named as Antakṛta daśā.

In the first two sections of Antakṛta daśā, the practice of spiritual purification of eighteen princes of Vṛṣṇi lineage like Gautama, etc. is described. It is stated that the twenty three virtuous people, described in the thirteen chapters of the third section and ten chapters of the fourth section, were the princes of Śrī Vāsudeva, Śrī kṛṣṇa, Śrī Baladeva and Śrī Samudravijaya. In the fifth section, it is stated that just like princes, even princesses can attain liberation by the practice general spiritual-exertions (Saṃyama sādhanā). The queens of Śrīkṛṣṇa like Padmāvati, and daughters-in-law have also obtained knowledge of the eleven Aṃgas in the monkhood of 20 - 20 years and by enduring Strict spiritual austerities (Tapaścaryā), they could come out of all the sorrow of life and attained liberation. The sixth section describes sixteen practitioners of different categories in Lord Mahāvīra's reign. The period of practice of twenty three queens of a like Nandā, Nandāmatī, Kālī, and Sukālī etc. are described in the twenty-three chapters of seventh and eighth sections.

The specialty of the Antakṛta daśā Sūtra is that it describes the lives of only those who will attain liberation in the same life span (Tadabhava Mokṣagāmīs). A large number of men & women from royal families gave up their wealth and limitless luxuries and proceeded towards renunciation, which can be stated as the victory of spiritualism over materialism.

9. Anuttaropapātika Daśa

Anuttaropapātika Daśa is the ninth Aṃga in the series of Dwādaśāṃgī. It comprises of one Śruta skaṇdha, 3 chapters, 3 topics, 3 sub topics and a limited discourses and thousands of verses. At present there are 192 verses in this Sūtra.

This Aṃga covers the history of such great personalities, who have, after immense penance and practicing pure self-restraint (Viśuddha Saṃyama), passed away, attained the highest degrees of celestial beings in Anuttara Vimānas (intermediary life to attain liberation in next birth). Born again as humans, they would attain liberation after perfectly practicing the right conduct (monkhood).

The 33 chapters in the three sections of 10, 13 and 10 respectively, contain brief descriptions of 33 historical personalities. Of these 33 great personalities, the first Jālī Kumāra etc. are 23 were the sons of Śreṇika, ruler of Magadha Kingdom.

10. Praśna Vyākaraṇa

This is the tenth Aṃga in the Dwādaśāṃgī. It contains 108 questions, 108 unasked questions and 108 questions on questions (Praśnāpraśna). All subjects covering the sacred conversations of Vidhyātiśaya, Nāga Kumāra, Suparṇa Kumāra and Yakṣa, et al. with serious practitioners, are described in this.

It has 1 Śruta skaṇdha, 45 topics, 45 sub topics, 1000 verses, limited discourses and many verses.

The present available text is divided into two sections. In the first section, 5 gates / causes of influx  (Āsrava dwāras) and in the second section 5 causes of stoppage of influx (Saṃvara dwāras) are expounded. A systematic explanation of five sins like violence etc is found in Āsrava dwāras; and the five vows like non-violence, etc is in the Saṃvara dwāras.

To obtain a thorough knowledge about five Āsrava dwāras, (Violence, untruthfulness, stealing, sex and possessions) and five Saṃvara dwāras (Non-violence, Truth, Non-stealing, celibacy and non-possession), one must read and memorise the two Śruta skaṇdha of Praśna Vyākaraṇa. It is equal to a great treasure for the philosopher.

11. VipākaSūtra

It is the 11th Aṃga.  It has 2 Śrutaskaṇdha, 20 chapters, 20 topics, 20 sub topics and numerous verses, limited discourses and numerous verses. The present available text has 1216 verses. The main aim of this text is to enlighten about the retribution for good or evil actions.

It has two sections - Painful result (Dukha Vipāka) and Pleasuable result (Sukha Vipāka). Kārmika law is a prominent and significant doctrine of Jain Dharma. This text is very useful to cite the examples about kārmika law.

The first part (Dukha Vipāka) narrates about such ten persons, who due to their evil deeds had to undergo many hardships and could get themselves relieved from the hardship.

The second part enumerates the happy lives of 10 princes Subāhu, Bhadranandi, etc. In their previous birth they all offered pure food to a monk with pure thoughts, and as a result they were born into high class families and attained liberation with blissful serious practice.

12. Dṛṣṭivāda

This is the 12th and the last Aṃga of Pravācanā Puruṣa. All the philosophies, doctrines and viewpoints (Nayas) of the World were described as well as Samyakatva and other doctrines or philosophies were elaborated.

This text is totally lost and so it is now not available anywhere. In 170 V.N. after the demise of Śrutakevalī Ācārya Bhadrabāhu, Dṛṣṭivāda started to decline and by 1000 V.N. it was totally lost. The original script is totally lost and the meaning is almost lost.

Ten names of Dṛṣṭivāda are given in the Sthānāṃga Sūtra. They are:

  1. Dṛṣṭivāda,
  2. Hetuvāda,
  3. Bhūtavāda,
  4. Tathyavāda,
  5. Samyakvāda,
  6. Dharmavāda,
  7. Bhāṣāvicaya,
  8. Pūrvagata,
  9. Anuyogagata and
  10. Sarva Prāṇa Bhūta Jīva Satva Sukhāvaha

According to Samavāyāṃga and Nandi Sūtra, Dṛṣṭivāda has five divisions. They are:

  1. Parikrama,
  2. Sūtra
  3. Pūrvagata,
  4. Anuyoga,
  5. Cūlikā.

The third part of Dṛṣṭivāda, namely, the Pūrvagata part is considered relatively voluminous and significant. It has the following fourteen Pūrvas. They are as follows:

  1. Utpādapūrva,
  2. Agrayaṇiyapūrva,
  3. Vīryapravāda,
  4. Astināstipravādapūrva
  5. Jṅānapravādapūrva,
  6. Satyapravādapūrva,
  7. Ātmāpravādapūrva,
  8. Karmapravādapūrva,
  9. Pratyākhyānapravādapūrva,
  10. Vidhyāṇupravādapūrva,
  11. Avandhyapūrva,
  12. Prāṇāvāyapūrva,
  13. Kriyāvālapūrva and
  14. Lokabiṃdusārapūrva