Jain Biology: 9. Phylum Echinodermata (Spiny Skin):

All the members belonging to this phylum are exclusively marine. Most of them have an endoskeleton of plates of calcium carbonate embedded in the body wall with protruding spines.

Locomotion is by water vascular system; digestive tract is simple and usually complete; circulatory system is radiate, but reduced; respiration is by means of gills, by tube feet etc.; nervous system "has a circular oral nerve ring and radial nerves; sexes are usually separate, alike externally; a few reproduce asexually) by self-division and many generate lost parts. Examples—Starfish, brittle star, sea urchin, sea-cucumber (holothurian).

Edited by:
Prof. Muni Mahendra Kumar

Ladnun-341 306 (Rajasthan, India)

First Edition: 2008 Printed at: Shree Vardhman Press, Naveen Shahdara, Delhi- 110032

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