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Jain Legend : Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2): Sectarian Differences In Jain Order (I)

Published: 24.05.2016

Right from Ārya Sudharmā to Ārya Vajra Swāmī, the Jain Order had run without any sectarian differences. Though Gaṇas (groups) and Śākhās (branches) started emerging from the tenure of Yaśobhadra, and differences between Gaṇas became customary from the period of Ārya Suhastī, yet there did not appear any basic sectarian differences. The entire Jain congregation was known as 'Nirgraṃtha' by one and all without any divisions like Śvetāmbara, Digambara etc.  Those who kept the essential clothes and those who did not, - both had the object of emancipation and without any conflict between themselves progressed forward on the spiritual path.

On one side there were ācāryas like Mahāgiri who preferred seclusion to practice Jinakalpa, and on the other, ācāryas like Suhastī wandered through villages, cities, preaching the sermons to normal people, propagating and expanding the Jain Order, thus constantly remained in association with devotees. Yet there was goodwill between them. Till then both the sects - with and without clothes - were equally respected, revered and were thought as eligible for liberation. The 'cloth' (either wearing or not wearing it) was not considered as the criterion for either practicing asceticism or attaining final salvation (muktipatha). Wearing clothes was not considered as hindrance to the path of salvation, similarly being naked was also not considered as the eligible criterion for attaining salvation. Śvetāmbaras never stated that without the tools of Dharma (like cloth, etc) one cannot attain liberation, and on the other side, Digambaras never claimed that the monk who wears clothes is, in real sense, not a monk at all. To put in a nutshell, till then 'with clothes' or 'without clothes' was not a yardstick to measure either the significance or the insignificance of a monk. The correct yardstick of monkhood was to have the right knowledge, right faith and the right conduct.

But in V.N. 609, this situation came to an end and a clear sectarian difference originated in the Jain society by the name of Śvetāmbara & Digambara. Jinabhadragaṇī Kṣamāśramaṇa has said, 609 years after V.N. Boṭika sect (Digambara sect) originated in Rathavīrapura.

The circumstances that led to the sectarian difference were described in Viśeṣāvaśyaka Bhāṣya and Āvaśyaka Cūrṇi etc. The gist is as follows:

Once Ācārya Kṛṣṇa came to a garden called Dīpa in Rathavīrapura. Śivabhūti, a royal priest used to live in the same city. As he was patronized by the king and was in his good books, he led a luxurious life enjoying all the sensual pleasures. He would return to his house only past midnight, roaming all over the city till then.

One day Śivabhūti's wife confessed her grief to her mother-in-law, "Your son never returns home in time, he always comes only after midnight. It is very painful to remain hungry till then and to stay awake for such a long time". The mother-in-law consoled her. The next day she asked her daughter-in-law to sleep and waited for her son to return. After midnight when Śivabhūti came home and knocked the door, his aged mother replied angrily, "Go to that place, where the doors are open at this late hour. Nobody is dying for you, over here."

Thus chided by his mother, Śivabhūti arrogantly returned back immediately. While roaming in the city, he saw that the Jain monastery (place of stay of the Jain monk) was open. He went inside and the next day, took initiation from Ācārya Kṛṣṇa and started wandering with him.

After sometime Ācārya Kṛṣṇa once again came to Rathavīrapura with his disciples. The King, because of his previous association, gave a precious blanket studded with gems, to Śivabhūti.

When the ācārya came to know about this he said, "The monk should not keep such precious blankets / clothes".

In spite of his Guru's objections Śivabhūti, out of attachment did not abandon the blanket, instead carefully packed it into a bundle.

One day, seizing an opportunity, the ācārya cut the blanket into several pieces and distributed among the monks. Śivabhūti felt distressed. After this incident he bred sinful feelings towards the ācārya.

Ācārya Kṛṣṇa, on one occasion was explaining about the conduct of monks who follow Jinakalpa. He said, 'Jinakalpi monks are of two types - Panipatra, one who takes food placing it on the palm and Patradhari, one who uses some utensils for eating. They are subdivided into one who wears clothes and the one who doesn't. Jinakalp is should keep at least two requisites with them - Whisk broom and cloth covering the mouth'.

Listening to this description of Jinakalpa, Śivabhūti asked, "If this is the case, why then in the name of audhika (daily used tools) and aupagrahika (borrowed and returned after use) so many requisites are being kept now?"

Ācārya replied, "After the nirvāṇa of Jambū Swāmī, because of the structural weakness, the Jinakalpa tradition is considered as lost".

Śivabhūti, already pained due to the loss of his blanket declared, "Master! As long as I am alive, I shall not allow the Jinakalpa to disintegrate. The one who aspires for the other world should always keep himself away from those objects which create delusion and passion."

The teacher said, "Son! Requisites like clothes, etc. need not increase attachment. Just like our body, the clothes also help us to follow the Holy Path; the way a monk bears his body without any attachment towards it to practice the Holy Path, similarly the basic needs like clothes, etc. is not inappropriate, but should be worn with the same feeling that they are helpful in our spiritual practice. The monk should use them with detachment, with a feeling that it is only a requisite which helps in spiritual practice.

Thus citing examples and evidences, the ācārya explained the true meaning and tried to bring him around, but the adamant Śivabhūti gave up clothes and practiced total nudity. He started living separately in a garden outside the city. Śivabhūti had a sister named Uttarā. She also took initiation and initially followed him. But later she gave up nudity and put on clothes.

According to Śvetāmbara School, it was under Śivabhūti, who is also known as Sahasramalla, that the Digambara sect came into existence. He had two disciples - Kauṇḍinya and Koṭṭavīra. Thus the Boṭika (Digambara) sect was led by Śivabhūti.

In most of the literature of Śvetāmbaras almost similar description is available. Just as Śvetāmbaras declare that the Digambara sect came into existence in V.N. 609, in the same way, the Digambara sect asserts that the Sevada congregation or Śwetapaṭṭa (white clothes) congregation (Śvetāmbara congregation) came into existence in V.N. 606.

Devasena Sūri, the author of Bhāvasaṃgraha wrote - "136 years after the death of Vikramāditya, the Śvetāmbara congregation originated in Vallabhī Nagara in Saurastra".

In this connection, Devasena Sūri giving special information says that, "In the 2nd century, after Vikramāditya's death, Bhadrabāhu, a great occult ācārya, warned his Śramaṇa congregation that a famine would break up in the near future that would last for 12 years; and so he asked them to go away to different places with their community. So while all the Gaṇadharas as per his advice migrated to the South along with their disciples, ācārya called Śānti with his great number of disciples went to Vallabhī Nagara in Saurastra, where he had to confront the most dreadful famine. There the calamitous situation reached such pinnacle that the poor hungry people used to tear open the stomach of those who had just eaten something and eat that food, thus quench their pangs of hunger. As there was no way out from such terrifying situation, Ācārya Śānti and his monks started using the requisites like stick, blanket, bowl, etc and wore clothes. They started eating along with the householders in their homes, sitting beside them.

When the famine was over and normal conditions prevailed, Ācārya Śānti addressing all the monks of the congregation, said, "Now, as the conditions restored back to normalcy, let us get rid of the low conduct that we adopted, undergo repentance to wash off the effects of the wrong deeds and follow our original, pure, virtuous code of Śramaṇa Dharma".

The disciples reacted to this and said, "How can we observe those Stringent and arduous rules now? Whatever methods we have adopted and have been observing are easy to follow; it is comfortable; so it is impossible for us to abandon them at this juncture."

When Ācārya Śānti tried to persuade them repeatedly and ultimately expressed his anger, his chief disciple struck him with a stick on his head with all his strength. Ācārya Śānti died at once and was born as a Vyantara (low-class angel).

Ācārya Devasena, the author of "Bhāvasaṃgraha" is of the opinion that the Śvetāmbara congregation was brought into existence by Jinacandra, the disciple of Śānti Ācārya.

Even in 'Bhadrabāhu Caritra' of Ratnanandi and 'Vṛhat Kathā Kośā' of Hariṣeṇa, similar description is narrated with a little variation about the birth of the Śvetāmbara sect. They held that the disciple of Sthūlācārya and Sthūlabhadra led to the birth of the Śvetāmbara sect.

According to Vrihat Kathā Kośā, during the time of the famine, as per the orders of Bhadrabāhu - the Śrutakevalī, Viśakhācārya along with some monks went to 'Punnaṭa' located in  the South, while Rāmilla, Sthūlācārya and Sthūlabhadra with their entourage went towards Indus (Sindhu Pradeśa). Rāmilla, et al., had to undergo the worst hardships during the famine. As requested by the devoted Votaries, to escape from the menace of the beggars, they used to seek alms at night and eat the same the next day. Upon the request of Votaries, they started placing a cloth on their left shoulder.  After the famine, both the Śramaṇa congregations met in Madhya Pradeśa. By that time, Rāmilla, Sthūlabhadra and Sthūlācārya, out of fear of transmigration, gave up clothes & following the spirit of 'Nirgraṃtha'. But a few Mokṣa who did not have the courage to withstand the difficulties imagined Jinakalpa and Sthavirakalpa and created a new Sthavirakalpa, which was different from the Nirgraṃtha tradition. However which disciple, of which ācārya was the reason for the new Śvetāmbara sect, is not mentioned therein.

According to Ratnanandi, the author of 'Bhadrabāhu Caritra', the Śvetāmbara sect came into being out of a division called 'Ardhaphālaka'. According to him:

Lokapāla, the king of Vallabhīpura upon the request of his queen Candralekhā invited her Guru Jinacandra from Ujjaini to Vallabhī. Seeing only one cloth, on the body of Jinacandra, the king in a dilemma, went back to his palace without paying obeisance to him. The queen, perceiving the feelings of her husband, sent clothes to Jinacandra, praying him to wear them. The king then paid homage, when he came to know that the monks wore clothes. Thus the 'Ardhaphālaka' sect since then they started wearing white clothes, gained popularity, as Śvetāmbara sect and it came into being 136 years after the death of King Vikram.

Different - different versions about the origin of Śvetāmbara sect are found in the three scriptures of Digambara sect like, Bhāvasaṃgraha, Vrihat Kathā Kośā and Bhadrabāhu Caritra written by Ratnanandi.

In all Śvetāmbara works like 'Viśeṣāvaśyaka Bhāṣya, Āvaśyaka Cūrṇi, Sthānāṃga' etc., the main event for the birth of the vatic sect (Digambara sect) appears totally the same, without any prejudiced and diversified opinions. Whereas in the texts of Digambara sect, varied versions are found, which are more or less biased in their narration.

In conclusion, it can be said that on the basis of the information available from the texts of both the sects, the sectarian division of Digambara & Śvetāmbara took place in 606 or 609 V.N.

Division of congregations in Digambara tradition

Four branches sprouted in Śvetāmbara sect, namely, Candra, Nāgendra, Nivṛtti and Vidhyādhara, and many sub-branches (Kulas). Similarly many divisions sprang up in the Digambara sect also like, Kāṣṭhā congregation, Mūla congregation, Mathura congregation and Gopya congregation, besides Nandigaṇa, Balātakāra Gaṇa and different other branches as mentioned in different texts.  They are discussed in brief.

The scholars of the Digambara sect held that the Jain Order functioned unbroken right from the nirvāṇa of Mahāvīra up to Ācārya Arhadbali. But in 593 V.N., on the occasion of the five-yearly periodical session of confessions, when all the ascetics assembled in a congregation in Mahimā Nagara, Ācārya Arhadbali noticed that the various ācāryas were displaying favoritism towards their respective disciples. So he divided the main congregation into many branches. Later, these branches began working independently and established their separate identity. Some of the names of the congregations, divided by Arhadbali ācārya are as follows:

1. Nandi congregation 6. Bhadra congregation
2. Vīra congregation 7. Guṇadhara congregation
3. Aparājita congregation 8. Gupta congregation
4. Paṃcastūpa congregation 9. Siṃha congregation
5. Sena congregation 10. Caṃdra congregation,  etc.

In some of the well-accepted works of the Digambara sect, it is mentioned that some of the congregation s, that were from time to time divided and subdivided, adopted less Stringent principles. So they were looked upon as pseudo-Jain congregation. Ācārya Devasena mentioned five such types of congregation:

  1. Drāvida congregation,
  2. Yāpanīya congregation,
  3. Kāṣṭhā congregation,
  4. Māthura congregation and
  5. Bhillaka congregation.

According to Ācārya Nandi in his book "Nītī Sāra", the 5 pseudo-Jain congregations are

  1. Gopucchaka,
  2. Śvetāmbara,
  3. Drāvida,
  4. Yāpanīya and
  5. Niṣpicchaka congregations.

According to Jainendra Siddhanta Kośā the names of the congregation are:

1 Anaṃtakīrti congregation 2 Aparājita congregation 3 Kāṣṭhā congregation
4 Guṇadhara congregation 5 Gupta congregation 6 Gopuccha congregation
7 Gopya congregation 8 Caṃdra congregation 9 Drāvida congregation
10 Naṃdi congregation 11 Naṃditara congregation 12 Niṭhiyācchi ka Congregatio n
13 Paṃcastūpa congregation 14 Punnāṭa congregation 15 Bāgada congregation
16 Bhadra congregation 17 Bhillaka congregation 18 Maghnandi congregation
19 Māthura congregation 20 Yāpanīya congregation 21 Lādabāgada congregation
22 Vīra congregation 23 Siṃha congregation 24 Sena congregation

Yāpanīya Congregation

In the present day, only these two sects - Śvetāmbara and Digambara are mainly known. However, in ancient times, 'Yāpanīya congregation' existed as a third sect of Jainism.  From the 2nd century to the 14th -15th century of Vikram era, this was also considered as a major sect of Jainism. It was also known by two other names - Āpulīya congregation and Gopya congregation.

Some of the Śvetāmbara ācāryas attribute the origin of Yāpanīya congregation from the Digambara tradition, whereas Ācārya Ratnanandi the author of 'Bhadrabāhu Caritra' held the view that it originated from Śvetāmbara sect.

Ācārya Maladhāri Rājaśekhara, of the Śvetāmbara sect in his text 'Ṣad Darśana -Samuccaya' expressed the opinion that the Gopya congregation, i.e. Yāpanīya congregation was a subdivision of the Digambara Tradition.

In his Bhadrabāhu Caritra, Ācārya Ratnanandi states that Śvetāmbara sect came into existence in Vikram 137 Era (V.N.606) in Vallabhī Nagara in Saurastra and in course of time, the Yāpanīya congregation emerged out of the Śvetāmbara sect in Karahāṭākṣa Nagara.

Digambara Ācārya Devasena, the author of 'Darśanacāra' a small book, opines that 'Śrī Kalaśa', ācārya of Śvetāmbara sect, started Yāpanīya congregation in Vikram 205 years.

Though, today, there is no trace left of Yāpanīya congregation, or of its followers, in India, yet on the basis of the available information, it can be stated firmly that Yāpanīya congregation existed in India for about 1200 to 1300 years as a prominent religious sect.

With the examples cited in 'Amogha Vṛtti' written by Ācārya Śākaṭāyana, who is also known as Pālyakīrti, of Yāpanīya congregation, it becomes apparent that Yāpanīya congregation considered the canonical scriptures of Śvetāmbara sect, such as the Āvaśyaka, Cheda Sūtras, Niryukti, Daśavaikālika etc., as authentic texts of their religious sect.

Śrī Gunaratna, in his commentary on Ṣad Darśana wrote that the ascetics of Yāpanīya congregation practice nudity, carry a soft broom made of shed peacock feathers with them, partake food placing it on the palm of their hands, worship naked idols and bless by uttering 'Dharma Lābha' (May you be blessed with Dharma) when the Votaries bow to them.

The Yāpanīya congregation gained popularity in Karnataka and its nearby places. It was a highly effective congregation of its times. It enjoyed royal patronage up to Vikram 15th century.

21st Epochal-ācārya Ārya Vajrasena

Birth V.N. 492 Household life duration 9 years
Initiation V.N. 501 Tenure as an ordinary Monk 63 years
Became groupācārya V.N. 584 Tenure as groupācārya 33 years
Became epochalācārya V.N. 617 Tenure as epochalācārya 3 years
Heavenly abode V.N. 620 Total longevity 128 years

Vajrasena took initiation from Ārya Siṃhagiri prior to Ārya Vajra, who was initiated in 504 V.N. As Ārya Vajra was gifted with implicit intelligence and knowledge, Ārya Siṃhagiri entrusted Ārya Vajra with the responsibilities of ācārya during his life time, and just before his final salvation, he officially appointed Ārya Vajra as the leader of the congregation.

Probably Vajrasena might not have accepted the post of ācārya because he regarded highly the immense knowledge of Ārya Vajra. That Ārya Vajra and Ārya Vajarsena had teacher-disciple relationship between them, is proved from the fact that before leaving with an entourage of 500 monks to observe fast unto death at the onset of the great famine, Ārya Vajra reinforced Vajrasena that the drought will end when in the house of the merchant Jinadatta in the city of Sopāraka, poison is mixed in the high-price cooked food.

Thus though Ārya Vajra was subordinate to Vajrasena in terms of initiation, from knowledge point of view, Ārya Vajra was not only senior and proficient but also a scholar in the ten Pūrvas and hence was considered as most fit for the rank of ācārya. In 584 V.N., Ārya Vajrasena was declared as group-ācārya and Ārya Rakṣita who was also a scholar in (2 topics less) ten Pūrvas succeeded Ārya Vajra as discourseācārya and epochal-ācārya.

Ārya Vajrasena was highly efficient and proficient in running the administration of the congregation; but unlike Ārya Vajra, et al, he lacked the knowledge of the Pūrvas. Hence after Ārya Rakṣita, Ārya Durbalikā Puṣyamitra, the scholar of Pūrvas was preferred as epochalācārya to Ārya Vajrasena who was performing the duties of group-ācārya in a proficient manner. At the end of the drought, i.e., during the last phase of the 12th year, Ārya Vajrasena wandering through many lands reached the town of Sopāraka, where the distinguished merchant Jinadatta, his wife Īśwarī and their four sons took initiation into Śramaṇa from Ārya Vajrasena.

Their four sons started four Gacchas (sub-division of congregation or Gaṇa). Nagendra Gachha- also known as Nayili originated from Nagendra, Candra Kula from Candra Bhumi, Vidyadhara Kula from Vidyādhara Monk and Nivṛtti Kula from Nivṛtti Monk. Thus, these four main Kulas originated.

The Śvetāmbara sect is of the opinion that the Digambara sect was originated by Ārya Śivabhūti, the disciple of Ācārya Kṛṣṇa in V.N. 609, during the lifetime of Vajrasena itself.

In V.N. 617, after Durbalikā Puṣyamitra left for heavenly abode, Ārya Vajrasena was nominated as his successor to the rank of epochal-ācārya. After efficiently serving the congregation for three years as epochalācārya, he attained heavenly abode in V.N. 620, after completing a long span of life of 128 years.

Ārya Candra 'group-ācārya'

After Ārya Vajra has attained heaven, once, Ārya Vajrasena during his wanderings reached Sopāraka. A wealthy merchant of Salahada lineage named Jinadatta lived in that city with his wife Īśwarī and four sons. The worst outcome of the drought had reached its peak. Total scarcity of food and goods was prevalent everywhere. Even the fabulous riches of Jinadatta could not buy enough food to mitigate their pangs of hunger. The very thought of starvation death of his family sent chills down his spine. After duly discussing with his wife, he decided that it is better to die together by consuming poison mixed in food, rather than dying by degrees, undergoing the severe pains of starvation. However it was very difficult even to secure enough grains for one time meal. Expending one lakh rupees, he somehow managed to procure some food enough for a meal.  Incidentally, wandering for seeking alms, Ārya Vajrasena reached the house of merchant Jinadatta.

When Jinadatta's wife was about to mix the poison in the food, at that very moment Ārya Vajrasena arrived at Jinadatta's house seeking alms. Ārya Vajrasena discerned that she was about to mix poison in the food worth one lakh rupees. He at once recollected the prediction Ārya Vajra. In a calm and composed manner, he said to Īśwarī, 'Subhikṣaṃ bhāvi, saviṣaṃ pākaṃ mā kurū vadvṛthā'- which means "O Pious Lady! Now the end of drought has drawn closer. Do not mix poison in the food. By tomorrow, there will be grains aplenty".

'The words of those great souls who are always engaged in service and in doing good to others will never go wrong', with this strong belief in heart, she at once gave up the thought (of mixing poison) and gave the food to Ārya Vajrasena with great delight.

As foretold by Ārya Vajrasena, the very next day, ships full of grains arrived at Sopāraka Nagara and with it brought a ray of hope in the lives of people who were frustrated due to hardships of the famine. Everybody received enough food as per their needs.  Seeing this, the merchant's wife, Īśwarī was very happy. She said to her husband, "Hadn't Ārya Vajrasena convinced us with his encouraging words, our family would have been totally wiped out by this time. He gifted us a new life. Therefore why don't we take shelter in Jain Dharma and make our lives worthy?"

Everyone liked her suggestion. The couple along with their 4 sons Candra, Nāgendra, Nivṛtti & Vidyādhara, renouncing all their wealthiest got initiated into Nirgraṃtha Śramaṇa Dharma. The four sons serving the Guru with all humility learnt all the canons and Pūrvas and all the four became eligible to hold the rank of ācārya.

Ārya Vajrasena made them ācāryas of different Śramaṇa groups. Ārya Candra was the founder of Candra Kula, Ārya Nāgendra of Nāili Kula (Nāgendra Kula), Ārya Nivṛtti of Nivṛtti Kula, and Ārya Vidhyādhara of Vidhyādhara Kula. Thus four Kulas came into existence. Candra Kula later became famous as Candra Gaccha.  It is estimated that Ācārya Candra was born in V.N. 576, initiated in 593, became group-ācārya in V.N. 620 and attained heavenly abode in V.N. 643.

The then political situation

During the end of first phase of the 6th century V.N. (first phase of the first century AD) Parthian, after asserting their authority over most of the places in Iran, attacked India. They waged war against Śakas, defeated them and established their authority over the North Western frontiers and Punjab. As a result, the Śakas' power was restricted to the South Western Saurastra and some other small neighboring lands. After establishing their rule over Punjab, the Parthian started expanding their rule. A Parthian ruler named Gonda Farness proclaimed Takṣaśilā, Mathura, Ujjaini, etc and appointed as their Governors (Satraps). After some time these satraps declared their independence and thus the might and power of the Parthian, decentralised and gradually disintegrated.

It is most likely that the Parthian and the Śaka rulers adopted the Indian religion and extended their patronage, thus helping the Indian culture to flourish. They strictly observed the Indian administrative system while governing the conquered areas, and served the people by implementing many welfare activities.

Whenever the foreign invaders attacked India, the chieftains, kings and the people faced those foreign powers with undaunted courage and gave a stubborn resistance. The well-organised vast army of the foreign invaders could easily usurp and establish their authority over many territories in India, as India lacked a strong and centralised military force. Yet, the Indian kings constantly revolted against them creating a threat to their existence. There was continuous resistance offered by the Indian public and the rulers to the foreign invaders.  Even the foreign invaders would also fight among themselves. As a result, ultimately, those foreign powers diminished, declined and disappeared. Initially Maurya Candra Gupta and subsequently the Śakas put an end to the Greek rule; the Śakas in V.N. 470 were defeated by Vikramāditya, and Gautamiputra Śakaṭārani (Śālivāhana) crushed the Śaka power in V.N. 605. In the same manner, the foreign rule of Parthians was put to an end by Kuṣāṇas, who were also foreign rulers and who belonged to the Yū-Cī tribe.

Prior to the tenure of Revati nakṣatra, as the discourse-ācārya, Kujula Kaidphises-I, a Kuṣāṇa warrior, defeating the Parthian annexed and established his power over Gandhāra (Afghanistan) and some areas of Punjab. His son, Vem Kaidphises started moving further, and during the tenure of Durbalikā Puṣyamitra as epochal-ācārya, he occupied and established his authority over complete Punjab and Duābā and extended his kingdom up to Varanasi in the East.

Being constantly exposed to the foreign assaults, our country became weak and vulnerable in many aspects. Harassed by the atrocities of the foreign invaders, the people became cynical and developed intolerance towards other common kites which resulted in social, religious and racial animosity. One race condemned the other, one religious follower blamed the other and one class held the other class responsible for the calamitous and miserable conditions that prevailed in the country as a result of the atrocities committed by the foreign invaders. It is impossible to assess the amount of damage done to our society by the people who bred such dangerous false notions in their hearts, because it was inconceivably greater than the greatest damage caused by these foreign - invaders. History bears testimony that the most selfish, from time to time instigated people to such polluted thinking. As a result, the people belonging to different classes, castes and religions who for thousands of years lived together in peace, now Strived hard to annihilate each other. Apart from various other reasons, this religious hatred was the main reason for the total extinction of Buddhism from our country. The crusades, led by King Puṣyamitra Śuṃga against Buddhists and Buddhism, are evidences which confirm this fact.

Due to the calamitous conditions that escalated in India as a result of the success of the foreign invaders, the followers of Jainism also had to undergo a difficult period. On the one hand emperors like Samprati of the Maurya dynasty patronised, propagated and expanded Jain Dharma in India and neighboring countries to an inconceivable extent, on the other hand after the invasions of India by foreign powers during the early first century A.D, the number of Jain followers gradually dwindled because of the atrocities inflicted upon them.

Sources

Title: Jain Legend: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)
Author:
Acharya Hasti Mala
Editors:
Shugan C. Jain
Publisher: Samyakjnana Pracaraka Mandala, Jaipur
Edition: 2011
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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anger
  2. Aparājita
  3. Bhadra
  4. Bhāṣya
  5. Body
  6. Buddhism
  7. Candra
  8. Caritra
  9. Cheda sūtras
  10. Cūrṇi
  11. Darśana
  12. Daśavaikālika
  13. Dharma
  14. Digambara
  15. Digambaras
  16. Fear
  17. Gaccha
  18. Gaṇa
  19. Guru
  20. Jain Dharma
  21. Jainism
  22. Karnataka
  23. Kula
  24. Kṛṣṇa
  25. Lakh
  26. Mahāvīra
  27. Mathura
  28. Mokṣa
  29. Nakṣatra
  30. Nirvāṇa
  31. Niryukti
  32. Nivṛtti
  33. Pradeśa
  34. Punjab
  35. Varanasi
  36. Vīra
  37. Yāpanīya
  38. jinakalpa
  39. Ācārya
  40. Āvaśyaka
  41. ācāryas
  42. Śrutakevalī
  43. Śvetāmbara
  44. Śvetāmbaras
  45. Śānti
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