Patanjali Yoga Sutras: Sutra 30-34

Published: 09.11.2015

30. अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥

ahiṁsā-satya-asteya brahmacarya-aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ ||30||

Non-killing, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and non-receiving, are called Yama.

A man who wants to be a perfect Yogi must give up the sex idea. The Soul has no sex; why should it degrade itself with sex ideas? Later we shall understand better why these ideas must be given up. Receiving is just as bad as stealing; receiving gifts from others. Whoever receives gifts, his mind is acted on by the mind of the giver, so that the man who receives gifts becomes degenerated. Receiving gifts destroys the independence of the mind, and makes us mere slaves. Therefore, receive nothing.

31. जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमामहाव्रतम् ॥३१॥

jāti-deśa-kāla-samaya-anavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā-mahāvratam ||31||

These, unbroken by time, place, purpose, and caste, are (universal) great vows.

These practices, non-killing, non-stealing, chastity, and non-receiving, are to be practiced by every man, woman and child, by every soul, irrespective of nation, country or position.

32. शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥

śauca saṁtoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ||32||

Internal and external purification, contentment, mortification, study, and worship of God, are the Niyamas.

External purification is keeping the body pure; a dirty man will never become a Yogi. There must be internal purification also. That is obtained by the first-named virtues. Of course internal purity is of greater value that external, but both are necessary, and external purity, without internal, is of no good.

33. वितर्कबाधने प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३३॥

vitarka-bādhane pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ||33||

To obstruct thoughts which are inimical to Yoga contrary thoughts will be brought.

This is the way to practice all these virtues that have been stated, by holding thoughts of an opposite character in the mind. When the idea of stealing comes, non-stealing should be thought of. When the idea of receiving gifts comes, replace it by a contrary thought.

34. वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहापूर्वका मृदुमध्य अधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३४॥

vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kṛta-kārita-anumoditā lobha-krodha-moha-āpūrvakā mṛdu-madhya adhimātrā duḥkha-ajñāna-ananta-phalā iti pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ||34||

The obstructions to Yoga are killing etc., whether committed, caused, or approved; either through avarice, or anger, or ignorance; whether slight, middling, or great, and result is innumerable ignorances and miseries. This is (the method of) thinking the contrary.

If I tell I lie, or cause another to tell a lie, or approve of another doing so, it is equally sinful. If it is a very mild lie, it is still a lie. Every vicious thought will rebound, every thought of hatred which you have thought, in a cave even, is stored up, and will one day come back to you with tremendous power in the form of some misery here. If you project all sorts of hatred and jealousy, they will rebound on you with compound interest. No power can avert them; when once you have put them in motion you will have to bear them. Remembering this, will prevent you from doing wicked things.

Patanjali Yoga Sutras Edition: 1896

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  1. Anger
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