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Non-violence Relative Economics And A New Social Order: Part.2

Published: 10.06.2015
Updated: 09.07.2015

EXERCISE FOR ACQUIRING THE VIRTUE OF

1. Mental Equilbrium (Balance of Mind)

The word 'mind' refers to the mental capacities or qualities of a person. It means a group of conscious attitudes (including the will), the whole psyche-conscious and subconscious; powers of comprehension, analysis and inquiry-a sum of mental faculties including those which are independent of the physical brain and nervous system Man is endowed also with a reasoning mind and is thus capable of conscious reasoning and rational judgement. No other animal possesses this faculty. Mental equilibrium or balance of mind, thus, mean a strong and healthy mind which is unaffected by traditional impulses, i.e., the innate capacity of the mind to perform mental tasks-to remember, to solve problems and to perceive relationships would remain unimpaired. It would also mean that the capacity for rational judgement is not affected by prejudice or bias. A person with mental equilibrium would tackle a situation with a rational, unemotional and open minded approach, rather than a biased or a prejudiced one. He would be able to put personal interest aside in order to view a situation without preconception. Mental imbalance, on the other hand, would mean lack of fairness in the person's judgment.

Instructions for Exercise

Sit in a comfortable posture with spine and neck in a straight line but without tension; eyes softly closed.

1. Recite a humming sound (called Mahaprana Dhvani or MD) After a deep inhalation through nostrils, keeping the mouth closed, produce a loud humming sound as that of a bee through the nostrils during a slow prolonged exhalation. Experience the vibrations created by MD in your brain and also visualize armour like cover enveloping yourself all around your body. Repeat the loud intonation at least nine times.

2. Practice total relaxation (kayotsarga) acquiring a tension-free, motionless state of the body. Maintain this motionless posture throughout the exercise.

5 minutes

3. Visualize that you are surrounded by bright green light like an emerald and with each inhalation you are breathing in bright green-coloured air.

3 Minutes

4. Focus your attention on the Centre of Intuition and visualize bright green colour there.             3 minutes

5. Focus your attention on the Centre of Intuition and recite the following sentence, first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times):
•             Irrational impulses are being controlled.
•             Mental equilibrium is increasing.

5 minutes

6. Contemplate on the high value of this virtue on the following lines:
•             Mental imbalance results in psychosomatic diseases.
•             Mental health is essential for physical health.
•             Over-ambition, intolerance and undesirable complexes result in mental imbalance.
•             Mental imbalance is a big hurdle in the way of success.
•             While confronted by a problem, one need not lose his mental balance.
•             I will train my mind in such a way that it retains it equilibrium even in adverse circumstances.

10 minutes

7. Terminate the exercise by reciting MD as step no 1 in this exercise.

2 minutes

2. Freedom from Greed

Greed is insatiable desire for food, money, power or material possessions. It is one of the characteristics of life but is an evil in itself. Man shares this instinct with other species of living beings, but unlike non-human species, man, thanks to being rational, can be award of his greed. He can be made aware that greed is destructive and therefore evil. A greedy person would not hesitate to use unethical means to fulfill his desire and may go to the extent of satisfying his lust for money or power by violence and force. This is detrimental to the health of social life. To promote social health, one must make a moral effort to practice freedom from greed by self-retraint.

Instructions for the Exercise

1-2. Steps 1-2 as in exercise no. 1.

3-4. Steps 3-4 as per exercise no. 1 except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is peacock-neck blue on centre of purity.

5.Focus your full attention on the Centre of Celibacy (tip of the tongue) and recite the following sentences first loudly (nine times):

•             My desires are being sublimated by self-restraint.

•             My selfishness is diminishing.

6.Contemplate on the high moral value of this virtue on the following lines:

•             Greed is an evil characteristic of life.

•             It produces desire and self-centredness.

•             It compels one to hoard material possessions.

•             Self-centeredness is a great impetus for worldly success, and a man of the world cannot totally forsake it.

•             Fulfillment of one's selfish interests may often involve injuring the interests of others.

•             A greedy person would not hesitate to use force and violence to satisfy his lust for money or power. Thus one's selfishness is a danger to the social peace. Unlimited greed of a selfish person begets violence. Stealing, lying, criminal mentality, ignoring of social responsibilities, bitterness and such other anti-social instincts.

•             Selfish actions may result in short-term gains but not permanent ones.

•             Selfishness can be extended to embrace the entire universe.[1] The narrow boundaries of selfishness can be extended by following the footsteps of those great men who renounced their self-centred interest adopting these as one's ideals.

7. Step 7 as in exercise no. 1.

3. Fearlessness

Fearlessness i.e. freedom from irrational fear is a virtue. It implies a firmness of character arising from strong moral convictions and indicated a willingness to proceed with the plan inspite of external deterrents and internal misgivings. Thus it shows a readiness to face danger or difficulty in carrying out a risky but important mission, often not entirely without fear, but always without letting fear prevent one from doing one's duty. This virtue gives one a resolute freedom from fear and a cool unshakable determination which enables one to refuse to be disheartened, intimidated or discouraged from proceeding further. Attainment of this virtue develops inner nobility of character which enables one to sacrifice one's own interests to save others. This is a positive virtue which should not be confused with recklessness or audacity which implies wild, irresponsible action.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2         Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3-4         Steps 3-4 as in exercise no. 1 execpt that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is bright rose pink, and the on center of bliss.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Bliss and recite the following sentences first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times).

•             My fearlessness is increasing.

•             My instinct of fear is diminishing.

6.            Contemplate on the high moral value of this virtue on the following lines:

•             Fear withers even the developed abilities and does not permit the latent ones to be developed. I must, therefore, strive to attain the virtue of fearlessness.

•             Every body tries to frighten one who is afraid.

•             Fear makes one a coward.

•             A coward does neither attract respect nor sympathy.

•             I firmly resolve to attain fearlessness to develop latent inner strength.

•             Undoubtedly I will attain freedom from fear.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no.l

4. Amity

Amity is a positive virtue in the form of a feeling of friendship which is free from the opposite feeling of enmity. It is a highly desirable virtue for promoting and maintaining social health and welfare because it denoted a feeling of good-will and harmony. Enmity on the other hand denoted a feeling of ill-will or active dislike, which may be personal or impersonal, open or hidden, and which leads to the display of hostility disrupting the peace and placidity of the social life. The end result of enmity or prolonged hostility is hatred which being deep-seated and malicious is a menace to the tranquility and calmness of the social life which is essential for the promotion of social health.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2         Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3-4         Steps 3-4 as in exercise no. 9 except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is bright white, and the center is the entire fochead region.

5.            Focus your full attention on the entire forehead region and recite the following sentences first loudly (9 times) and then mentally (9times):

•             Everybody is my friend.

•             I will practice amity with everybody.

6.            Contemplate on the merit of this virtue on the following lines:

•             Feeling of enmity generates fear which, in turn, weakens the body and mind. Therefore, I must develop the virtue of amity.

•             Whenever one indulges in the feeling of enmity, his happiness is destroyed.

•             To perpetuate one's own happiness, one must develop the virtue of universal amity.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no. 1

5. Gentleness

Gentleness means mild, sweet and modest manner of dealing with people. It is essential for a peaceful family and social life. It implies a flexible nature and one who develops this virtue has the ability to extricate himself from tight corners and turn unfaourable conditions into favourable ones. What cannot be achieved by harsh discipline can be easily done by gentleness. Harshness, opposite to gentleness, implies cruelty either deliberate or unintentional and suggests roughness or severity of treatment. Whereas individual gentleness promotes social health, harshness is sure to result in bitterness and conflict.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2         Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3-4         Steps 3-4 as in exercise no. 1, except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is bright green (as that of emerald) and the center is the Center of Intuition.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Peace and recite the following sentences first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times)

•             My gentleness is increasing.

•             My arrogance and rashness are diminishing.

6.            Contemplate on the high moral value of this virtue on the following lines:

•             I should behave with gentleness towards people and things.

•             I shall cultivate humbleness towards truth, i.e., 'whatever I say or do is Truth' is arrogance and I should be mentally free from it.

•             I should refrain from being arrogant about my wealth, learning.

•             Thanks giving to express gratitude, and supporting benevolent actions are essential features for a successful carrier.

•             Saying 'sorry' for a lapse and begging pardon for improper behaviour, are means to attain greatness.

•             I will observe all the rules of proper behaviour.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no.l

6. Compassion

Compassion is a virtue which inspires one to have concern for the welfare and happiness of others. It implies considerateness not only for human beings but with all living creatures. The behaviour of a person endowed with this virtue will de disposed to show a kindly and merciful attitude towards others who are suffering or in distress and to help them when and where possible. Cruelty which is opposite of compassion pertains to temperaments and attitudes that are lacking in sensitivity and harsh or harmful acts that inflict pain on others. While compassion is a humane trait, cruelty is inhuman or beastly. In other words, absence of compassion is unworthy of a human being because of its unkindness and callousness. In context of social health, compassion is not only desirable but essential.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2         Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3-4         Steps 3-4 as in exercise no. 1, except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is bright pink and the center is the Center of Bliss.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Bliss and recite the following sentences first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times)

•             My interests encompass the entire universe.

•             My compassion is increasing.

6.            Contemplate on the high moral value of this virtue on the following lines:

•             Urge of anger, arrogance and greed results in the psychological distortion of cruelty.

•             Nobody wants to be the victim of a painful behaviour, so why should I behave as to cause pain or unpleasantness to others.

•             In order to live a decent and peaceful social life, I must develop the feeling of compassion.

•             I vow to reinforce the emotion of compassion.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no.l

7. Forbearance:

Forbearance is an aspect of self-control that enables one to endure provocation, suffering or any other unpleasant vicissitudes of life. It indicates a determined effort against giving vent to intense feeling stressing on self-controlled abstinence from hasty or ill-tempered action, whatever the provocation. It is positive virtue of great moral and social value and should not be construed as a negative passive submission (say due to failure of nerve). It is an ability of the inner consciousness to endure physical pain and mental anguish with complete equanimity. In practice, it enables one to present a noble and dignified response to misfortune and other vicissitudes of life. Development of this virtue results in a more balanced equilibrium and equanimity towards pleasant and unpleasant aspects of life.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2         Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3-4         Steps 3-4 as in exercise no. 1, except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is the peacock-neck blue and the center is Centre of Purity.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Enlightenment and repeat the following sentences first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times)

•             My forbearance is being reinforeed.

•             My equanimity is increasing.

6.            Contemplate on the desirability of acquiring this virtue on the following lines:

•             The physical discomfort resulting from:

· seasonal changes

· sensations produced by disease;

· mental sensations such as- sensations of pleasure and pain,

· sensations of comfort and discomfort; and

· emotional sensations such as- opposing views, opposing nature, opposing taste;

affect me, but I should not be swayed by them.

•             If 1 permit their influence to overwhelm me, it would inhibit my abilities.

•             Less I am affected, greater would be my strength.

•             That is why development of forbearance is the key to my success in life.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no. 1

8.Reconciliation:

Broadmindedness is an admirable ability to see all sides of a question, situation or event. It is an ingenious practical ability to reconcile, i.e. find some unifying features even in two apparently conflicting or diametrically opposite views, statements, qualities or events. Thus, it is a desirable virtue for promoting social health and well-being. A person who has acquired this virtue remains imperturbable under pressure and recovers quickly in the face of threat or upset. Such an ability enables one to maintain balance under the pressure of two confilicting impulses. The adjective opposite describes views, concepts, or emotions, that are apparently incompatible i.e. they do not agree or go together.

However, opposite is not necessarily inimical or hostile. As a matter of fact the nature is full of opposite conditions which coexist. E.g. condition opposite to heat is cold; north is south. In other words, a broadminded person will try to reconcile opposite conditions or opinions, and avoid active hostilities, ill-feeling and rancour.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1.            Step no. 1 as in exercise 1.

2.            Regulate your breath, making it slow, deep and rhythmic.

5 minutes

3.            Practice subtle bellows breathing.

5 minutes

(Bellows is an instrument used by the blacksmith to reinforce the fire by quick supply of air. Therefore, quick inhalation and exhalation is called bellows breathing.)

4.            As step no. 2 in the exercise no. 1

5 minutes

5.            Focus your full attention on Centre of Intuition (between the eyebrows) and recite the following sentences first loudly (5 minutes) then softly (5 minutes) and finally contemplating mentally.

5 minutes

· I will try my best to seek reconciliation in apparently conflicting views (statements, qualities, actions).

· I will develop broadmindedness.

6.            As step no. 7 in exercise no. 1.

15 minutes

9. Co-existence

Co-existence is a fairly new word (originated in diplomacy) meaning simultaneous existence of two or more sections of the society differing widely in ideology, through a policy of mutual noninterference. Modern society is generally constituted by people with divergent, and very often opposing views, beliefs and cultures. In the interest of social peace and health, it is essential to develop forbearance and avoid a conflict which is likely to arise due to the clash of opposing ideologies of two or more constituents. To live peacefully, it is necessary to reconcile the opposing or widely differing ideologies.

Such a reconciliation can be the result of a formal agreement or an informal adjustment between two or more groups of divergent religious, political, communal, commercial and cultural ideologies. For an individual it is a desirable virtue in the form of positive attitude which can be acquired by the following exercise-

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-4         Step 1 to 4- as in exercise no. 8

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Bliss and recite the following sentences.

15 minutes

· 1 will strive for peaceful co existence.

· I will not support destructive or aggressive activities.

6.            As step no. 7 in exercise no. 1.

10. Freedom from Infatuation

Infatuation denotes intense attachment of a person for someone or something. It is a strong and passionate feeling, which is often unreasoning and unreasonable. Infatuation is a great hurdle in promoting social health and everybody owes the society, in return for the privileges one receives from it, to be free from infatuation. When one is strongly attached to any material possessions, be it wealth, status or dogmatic beliefs, one is, at times, susceptible to take strong action which may be anti-social and highly injurious to social health. Material possessions are means of convenience or comfort but can never result in true happiness. This exercise helps to acquire "freedom from infatuation" which is not only necessary for social progress but also for awareness of one's real self.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2         Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3-4         Steps 3-4 as in exercise no. 1, except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is the peacock-neck blue and the center is Centre of Purity.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Peace (frontal lobe of the cerebrum) and recite the following sentences first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times)

· Freedom from infatuation is increasing.

· Infatuation for material things is being reduced..

6.            Contemplate on the high moral value of this virtue on the following lines:

· I am fully aware of the nature of material things. They are indeed useful to me. Their utility is a matter of convenience for me, but not of happiness or peace.

· Happiness and peace are inherent traits. I vow that I will not be infatuated by material things.

· I will always remain aware of my own real self.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no.l

11. Patience

Patience is a positive virtue indicating a voluntary self-control for enduring waiting. It often refers to a willingness to wait without becoming disgruntled or over-anxious. In a general way it shows a kindly tolerance for other peoples shortcomings, and an ability to remain unperturbed by others inefficiency and to bear annoying situations without becoming upset. Patience is generally accompanied by perseverance which means unremitting effort that is not weakened by moments of failures. It also stresses attentiveness and unwearying application to an exhausting task. Patience means determination and an energetic approach to one's duties. It is a very much desired virtue for a peaceful life as well as social amity.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-2.        Step 1-2 as in exercise no. 1

3.            Step no. 3 as a exercise 1.

4.            Step no. 4 as in exercise no. 9, except that the colour to be visualized and inhaled is bright yellow, and the center is center of vitality.

5.            Focus your full attention on the tip of your nose (center of vitality) and recite the following sentence first loudly (nine times) and then mentally (nine times):

· I will develop my capacity to confront any situation with patience.

· I will not lose patience and be overwhelmed by any adversity.

6.            Contemplate on the high moral value of this virtue on the following lines:

One, who is impatient and does not wait for the opportune moment, becomes over-agitated and over-excited.

· Over-excitation results in mental disorganisation.

· This drastically reduces powers of memory and concentration.

· To preserve these, it is essential to cultivate the virtue of patience.

· I will continue to practice patience.

7.            Step 7 as in exercise no. 1

12. Freedom from (religious) fanaticism

There are many cultures, ideologies and religions in a cosmopolitan society of modern times. Religion basically works for the good of mankind in general and its adherents in particulars. Many a time, however, due to fanaticism, there develops a religious intolerance between the adherents of different ideologies. As serious social situation of tension may arise and may culminate into riots and terrorism. Freedom from fanaticism is a virtue which develops religious tolerance which is very essential for social peace and health. Simultaneously, greed and selfishness of the people have increased manifold due to technological advances and over-industrialisation. In order to save mankind from the evil consequences of technology inspired by greed, world-wide cooperation among the followers of all religions and philosophies is needed. They should not be handicapped by traditions of exclusiveness and intolerance. Instead a tradition of mutual tolerance, respect and positive cooperation must be developed. This spirit is needed for a concerted struggle to save the mankind from doom. The following exercise can transmute the negative attitude of intolerance and fanaticism by acquiring freedom from fanaticism.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1-4         Step 1 to 4- as in exercise no. 8.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Bliss and recite the following sentences for 15 minutes as specified before.

· 1 will remain totally free from sectarian fanaticism.

· I will develop tolerance for divergent creeds and sects.

6.            Step 7 as in exercise no.l

13. Concept of Unity of Mankind (Human Equality)

The scientific term for mankind is "Homo sapiens". This means that every man on the face of this earth is a member of this species, which is the only surviving species of the genus "Homo". Thus there is a basic natural unity of mankind, inspite of diversities in colour, culture, creed, country etc. Every man (and woman) possesses some basic human characteristics-biological as well psychological, which distinguishes him (or her) from other sub-human animals. One of these is his capacity for rational thinking and behaviour. These characteristics unify the entire human race. On the other hand, there are many man-made differences such as wealth, status, power etc., and these inevitably create conflicts. The purpose of acquiring this concept is to accept the basic human equality and not to despise any member because of his inferior social or economic status/ This is an essential virtue for the maintenance of social health and peace.

Instructions for the Exercise:

1.            Step no. 1 to 4- as in exercise no. 8.

5.            Focus your full attention on the Centre of Purity and recite the following sentences for 15 (5+5+5) minutes as specified before.

· I will remain full faith in the basic human equality.

· I will not designate anybody as high or low on the basis of colour, caste, creed etc.

6.            Step 7 as in exercise no.l

Footnotes
1:

Jump to occurrence in text

Sources

Title: Non-violence Relative Economics And A New Social Order
Publisher: Jain Vishwa Bharati University, Ladnun, India
Editors: Prof. B.R. Dugar, Dr. Samani Satya Prajna, Dr. Samani Ritu Prajna
Edition: First Edition, 2008

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Anger
  2. Body
  3. Brain
  4. Celibacy
  5. Center of Bliss
  6. Center of Intuition
  7. Centre of Bliss
  8. Centre of Celibacy
  9. Centre of Enlightenment
  10. Centre of Intuition
  11. Centre of Peace
  12. Centre of Purity
  13. Cerebrum
  14. Concentration
  15. Consciousness
  16. Cooperation
  17. Dhvani
  18. Discipline
  19. Equanimity
  20. Fear
  21. Fearlessness
  22. Greed
  23. Kayotsarga
  24. Mahaprana
  25. Mahaprana Dhvani
  26. Tolerance
  27. Violence
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