Queries & Solutions Offered on Space, Time & God Particle

Published: 07.07.2014
Updated: 02.07.2015

I received some appreciative comments and queries from a wide section of the readers on my following two articles posted on HN4U website.

  1. Jainism, Quantum Physics and Evolving Spiritualism
  2. Concepts of Space, Time and God Particle in Jainism and in Science

The readers apparently seem to be excited about my presentation which is refreshingly different from the routine exercise of comparing Jainism with science. The greatest drawback of comparison method is that the author is invariably guided by the ‘Jaina faith’ to which he or she belongs. The scientific facts are then either twisted or negated to suit the faith of the sects who sponsored the research. Even in some cases, the Kewalgyan or omniscience of Mahavir was treated as Meta Physics, which in my view is a sinister act.   

I am of the opinion that the state of Omniscience or Kewalgyana cannot be achieved on the foundation of false and imperfect knowledge or Meta Physics. I therefore endeavored to re-evaluate and reinterpret the Agam Sutras and Gathas assuming science to be right. To my great surprise I found that, Mahavir’s Samyag Gyana in fact constitutes the same basic laws of nature what we call today as scientific laws.  

It is a fact that science does not talk of soul and spiritualism because none of the laws of science including laws of physics and mathematics are capable of describing Absolute Truth. But Bhagwan Mahavir believed that science and spiritual wisdom play major role in understanding the self and the universe. He could establishharmonious balance between the material and spiritual worlds by his simple but highly effective ‘science of the creation and spiritual evolution’.

Conventionally Indians are known as history makers in the field of Culture. But through my books and articles I wish to bring out that, in addition to culture, we also pioneered the science and fused it with spirituality. Bhagwan Mahavir did synthesize science into religion long before science was born in the west.

Let us make the world aware of the scientific contributions of Mahavir and let us make a valid case for rewriting the history of science.

Questions and Solutions:

Question 1:

Differentiate between Physical Reality and Truth?


Uttaradhayan Sutra (3/36) defines Reality as humans perception of existence (Sat) of Jiv and Ajiv substances, which changes according to Dravya (material contents), Kshetra (space), Kaal (time) and Bhav (modes). In other words reality is not absolute but it is a function of space and time. In Agamic language Reality is referred as Asat which does not mean falsehood but changing perception. Einstein called reality as Relative Truth.

Unlike reality, Truth is absolute and is not limited by space and time. Existence of Panchastikaya Loka consisting of five Astikayas is absolute Truth, It is neither created nor destroyed yet it is perceived by Jiva (Human consciousness) as Utpad-Vyay- Druv of dravyas.  Akash, Dharma, Adharma, Jiva and Pudgal are physical realities or space-time limited versions of corresponding Astikaya forms.

Mahavir and Einstein both emphatically stated that Absolute Truth (Astikayas) cannot be perceived by human consciousness. Awareness of existence of soul (Non-material but conscious Jiva) and Parmanu (Material Atom) are closest to the experience of Absolute Truth.        Conventionally, Jain Acharyas convey this massage by saying ‘You are immortal Soul and not Mortal Body’.

Question 2:

Please Illustrate the Jain Concept of Space? Is it continuous or discrete?


In Jainism, the space is called Akash.  It is not simple empty space but a dravya itself having the capacity to hold and provide shelter to other dravyas.  This property is similar to ‘Gravitation’ force. Hence according to Mahavir the Space is an infinite Gravitation Field called Akashatikaya, similar to modern concept of infinite continuum.

Akashastikaya is continuous, yet it reacts like a body made of atomic size infinite numbers of field elements called Akash Pradesh. Thus Jain concept of space is the same as that of modern cosmology.

The continuous and quantum nature of space was obvious to Mahavir, but it took several decades for Einstein who initially believed in 4Dspace continuum and would not accept its  quantum nature.



What is Dravya? Is it a substance?


Dravya is not a substance or a compound.  Dravya is a basic constituent element of the universe. In science we say Mass and Energy are two basic constituents of which this universe is made of. In Jainism the universe is supposed to be made of five Dravyas, which are further classified as Jiv and Ajiv or Jad and Chetan.   

In science, everything including matter is energy. In Jainism universal consciousness is taken as fundamental element and all other   constituents are clubbed together as Jad or Pudagal.  Thus there is hardly any difference between science and Jainism on classification of Dravya.

The riddle how energy is converted into mass has been recently solved in science through the prediction of existence of God Particle. This riddle was solved by Mahavir through the existence of space gravitation element- Pradesha. He said all dravyas are made of finite or infinite numbers of Pradesha. The basic material particle - the Atom is also equivalent to one Pradesh.


Question 4:

Everything that Einstein did, you attribute that to Mahavir. Can you justify this?


The following facts and other details given in my books point towards the possibility of Einstein developing his scientific theories based on the knowledge of Jain Science. It is also possible that   he developed his concepts independently and incidentally they happened to be similar to those of Mahavir.

    1. Rejecting the concept of creation, Einstein like Mahavir in his theory of universe proposed that the universe consists of finite size Observable Space and infinite Empty Space which are similar to Jain concepts of Loka and Aloka.
    2. Mahavir predicted existence of Space gravitation hundreds of years earlier than Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, which is nothing but motion under space gravitation.   
    3. Einstein like Mahavir believed that gravitation was the only force existing in the universe and in 1917 using this concept he arrived at the model, which represented the universe as homogenous static curved surface similar to static Loka. Einstein firmly believed in his static universe and fiercely defended his model till 1932.   
    4. Einstein said that cosmic space is infinite, yet it has dimensions in space (x, y, z) and time (t). How can infinity have finite length, width, and height? Einstein used Mahavir’s argument that space is an infinite gravitation energy field, time variations of which   result in finite x, y, z and t co-ordinates.  In Agama the Time co-ordinate is expressed as characteristic property of dravya which result in formation of  its Paryaya. 
    5. Einstein and Mahavir both said that Absolute Truth (Dravya) can only be observed by universal observer. Human consciousness can only observe Relative Truth (Paryaya).
    6. Quantum physicists discovered a flaw in the continuum nature of space as suggested by Einstein. Like Mahavir, they found that the cosmic space behaves like a vacuum quantum field which continuously produces virtual particles, yet on an average it remains the same everywhere.
    7. Einstein tried unsuccessfully to establish a link between the continuous nature and quantum behavior of space by proposing Unified Field Theory, which is similar to Mahavir’s concept of Akashastikaya made of infinite numbers of atomic size field elements called Akash Pradesh.  
    8. Peter Higgs in 1964 succeeded in unifying both continuous and quantum nature of space by naming the space as Higgs Field and its quanta as having the properties of a Boson which imparts mass to other energy particles over space dimensions equal to one Plank Length. This Higgs Boson is now accepted as God Particle, which is the building unit of everything physical. In Mahvir’s views the Akash Pradesh is the fundamental building unit.

From the above it is obvious that the original and revolutionary theories proposed by Einstein and others have great similarities with Mahavir's concepts and hypothesis.


Question 5:

Avagahana guna of Akashstikaya has been called gravitation property. This needs clarification. Jain metaphysics clearly states that one dravya can never become another dravya and property of one dravya can never be the property of another dravya. If gravitation is property of matter pudgala it cannot be a property of Akashstikaya dravya.


Gravitation is the property of space and not of matter or Pudagala as commonly believed.  It is energy field behaving like a weak force that always exists in a space surrounding a material particle. The gravitation of earth is not the property of earth, but it is a force of attraction that exists in the space surrounding the earth. Likewise gravitation exists in the entire space including Aloka which surround the material Loka.

Newton predicted the existence of gravitation in the space surrounding the earth and other planets only. But Mahavir and much later Einstein extended his concept to the entire space. 


Question 6:

In your model, dharmastikaya and adharmastikaya originate in space and therefore are not independent dravyas as propounded in Jain metaphysics. This refutes the theory of six dravyas in loka.


Dharmastikaya and Adharmastikaya are not generated in space. In no uncertain terms, I repeat that ‘the two dravyas are eternal constituents of space as accelerating and retarding potentials because of space gravitation or because of Avagahan Guna. These potential fields induce motion or retardation in matter which are respectively called as Dharma and Adharm  Dravyas. Uttaradhayan Sutra (28/9), Sthanag Sutra (5-3-170), Tatwarth Sutra (5//17) and Panchastikaya, gatha-84 say the two dravyas are responsible for ‘motions and positions’ of Atoms and Atman, which are scientific facts.

The Jain Agamas describe the laws governing the rectilinear and curved motions (Vigraha/Avigraha Gati) of Atoms and Atman under the influence of the space potentials. These potentials are also the deciding factors of the shape and size of Loka and also the habitats of liberated souls, gods, humans etc. according to their density (Prameytwa). Einstein’s laws of motions under the influence of space gravitation are similar in nature and are described as General Theory of Relativity.


Question 7:

How are astikayas material quantum fields? All astikaya dravyas except pudgalastikaya are non material dravyas.


Matter is a common word like Dravya and is used for all types of constituents of the universe. Non material energy is also matter. The word ‘Non- Matter’ does not exist in science.

Quantum field is neither matter nor non matter. It is a state of existence which has no physical boundaries. Quantum field like Astikaya is a single body and cannot be separated in to field elements or quanta.  

According to Jain philosophy Dravya exists as Astikaya and the universe is Panchastikaya.  According to science, the universe (vacuum & Panchastikaya) exists as quantum field. Therefore I interpret astikaya as a state of existence similar to a quantum field.

Let me emphasize once again that Astikayas and quantum fields do not represent matter or non matter but only indicate non physical existence of dravyas and the universe.


Question 8:

If the five constituent astikayas of loka originate from the material quantum fields, the very thesis of independent dravyas is violated. Does it not amount to monism or idealism where the Loka, Jiva and Ajiva originate from one single source (Brahma or superpower). Are you not equating the material quantum field to super power?


Astikayas do not originate from the material quantum fields. In fact Astikaya itself is a quantum Field.  Astikaya or Quantum Field appears to an observer as matter or non matter.  

 Astikaya and quantum Field, both are state of eternal existence of dravyas. All other physical forms of existence including Loka containing six dravya is a temporary phase of existence created by human consciousness. The five drayvas of Loka exist as five distinct quantum fieldsor five Astikayas. If you raise the level of your consciousness to 14th Guna Sthana, you may be able to see the five Astikayas as distinct material quantum fields.    

Nither Astikaya not a quantum field is a source or a creator like Brahma, God or Monad.  It is the Jiva that observes or perceives the astikayas as material particle or Pradesh. In this sense Jiva may be called Brahma but not the quantum field. According to quantum physics the Jiva may even perceive Multiverse instead of the universe.  

Akashastikaya is perceived by Jiva as akash dravya, dharmastikaya as motion, Adharmastikaya as retardation, Jivastikaya as living being (Jiva) and Pudagalastikaya as non living Parmanu.


Question 9:

How Akasha Pradesh can be called Higgs Boson? A Higgs boson is supposed to have a mass of about 125GeV which is even far greater than the mass of a proton, less than 1GeV.


 Higgs Boson is not a particle of fixed mass of 125 Gev. Boson is a general term used for all energy particles that follow Bose Einstein Statistics and that their energy varies over a wide range from thousands of Gev to fraction of EV. Therefore your statement that 125 Gev particle is heavier than a proton is irrelevant and has no bearings on Pradesh or Higgs Boson.

Gravity is the weakest force, 10-43 times lesser than electromagnetic force. The mighty earth is so weak that it cannot pull back a tiny paperclip from a tiny magnet if held above the earth surface. Therefore it took so long to discover God Particle.

Gravitation Energy integrated over space dimensions equal to one Planck Length is known as God particle or Higgs Boson. In Jain Agamas the space element is called Pradesh which is equivalent to Plank Length and the quantity of Akashastikaya Dravya integrated over one Pradesh is equivalent to Higgs Boson or God Particle.   


Question 10:

Please explain how ‘Time’ is only mode of conscious perceptions (paryayas) of reality and not sat or absolute truth.


According to Jainism and Science, Time is not something that we can see, feel, taste, touch or smell. Our five senses collect information on motion and other changes taking place in our surroundings and our consciousness convert the information in physical reality or knowledge.  This realization by Jiva occurs within the limitations of space and time. Obviously space and time are modes of perceptions of Jiva by which it knows reality. 

Like Jain concept, science also says that space and time are the co-ordinates of the information system with which our consciousness perceive reality.  

Nandi Sutra 58, Vyakhya Pragyapti  (7-10-305), Sthanag Sutra (4-1-251) and Panchastikaya (Gatha 4,5 & 6) convey in no uncertain term that the universe contains only five  (not six) dravyas.  Obviously Time is not an Astikayas and therefore not a dravya. Acharya Kundkund in Gatha 6, makes it clearer. He says the five Astikayas are converted into five dravyas by Kaal.

In classical physics ‘past’ has definite existence. But in quantum physics the ‘past’ is considered to be as indefinite as ‘future’ and will exist only as a probability. Unless there is a present, there is no past and no future. This is also the statement; our Acharyas and Muni make day in and day out.  Unfortunately they also define kaal according to their faiths and thus create conflict and confusion.   


I received many more queries for further explanation, which I will answer in the second part of this article. ‘Your two books provide clear and unambiguous picture of Jain Science and convey the message that Bhagwan Mahavir, indeed was a multidisciplinary scientist who did not conduct Lab. experiments to know the Truth but conducted highly advanced ‘Thought Experiments’ to witness and describe Truth’, says revered Upadhyaya Ramesh Muni, Jai Muni and Udaiy Muni. Their sentiments are echoed by Dr C. Dev Kumar, scientist and an authority on Digamber Sastras. Dr Kamal Kumar Jain of Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, Professor Pradeep Paltane Jain, President of All India Jain OBC organization etc.

My several colleagues both from scientific and cultural fields including my past and present associates from DRDO, IISC, IIT and BARC echo the same sentiments. I am grateful to all of them. A note of discontent was also received from JVBI in the form of few questions mentioned above.

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