Bhagwaan Mahaveer Evam Jain Darshan: Internal Tapa

Published: 07.05.2014
Updated: 30.07.2015 Internal Tapa: this has also six divisions -
  1. Repentance (prāyaścita = प्रायश्चित)
  2. Reverence or Humility (vinaya = विनय)
  3. Respectful Service (Vaiyāvrtya = वैयावृत्य)
  4. Study (svādhyāya = स्वाध्याय)
  5. Meditation (dhyāna = ध्यान)
  6. Renunciation of egoistic thoughts or giving up attachment to the body (Vyutsarga = व्युत्सर्ग)

1. Repentance (prāyaścita = प्रायश्चित):

The term repentance is synonymous of prāyaścita. In order to remove all shortcomings originated by non-vigilance and non-restrains the actions are needed to perform repentance to promise not to commit mistakes again in future to accepting the punishment given by master for pre-committed mistakes and to practice the right conduct as per master's indication, all these practices are called prāyaścita.

2. Reverence or Humility (vinaya = विनय):

The root of the dharma's tree is vinaya. To be absorbed only in practice of faith, knowledge and conduct is vinaya tapa. To honor, to welcome and to bow down before the knowledgeable persons who are full of vision and character, all these activities are considered under vinaya. The humble person controls over his inauspicious tendencies of mind, speech and body and engages them in benevolent works and well-being of all.

3. Respectful Service (Vaiyāvrtya = वैयावृत्य):

An aspirant develops himself and adorns Ācārya, Gurus, scriptures, austere, sthavirs and serves old, ailed and incapables. For the sake of service of others the sense of equanimity and equality in all being develops and the sense of renunciation arises.

4. Study (svādhyāya = स्वाध्याय):

To explore the theology, to express queries before master, and to express gratitude before them for their answers and to revise the gained knowledge and to think over to sutras and to precept to move towards perfection is study (svādhyāya).

5. Meditation (dhyāna = ध्यान):

The concentration of mind is called dhyāna. To concentrate on an auspicious object by renouncing all kind of inauspicious, immature thoughts is a dhyāna in real sense. Dhyāna is called as transcendental tapa.

Four kinds of dhyāna are such as -

  1. Ārta dhyāna
  2. Raudra dhyāna
  3. Dharma dhyāna
  4. Shukla dhyāna

Among these four types of meditations the Ārta and Raudra are inauspicious meditation. The meditation which is caused by having what we do not want to have and by not having what we want to have, by feeling of the sorrows, by disaster of the lust is called Ārta-dhyāna. The meditation which is caused by concentration of mind on, protection to own property, concentration of mind to kill earth, water, fire, air, and botanical bodied jiva is Raudra-dhyāna. This is the reason that the Ārta and Raudra meditation are both relinquish able because they cause harm. An aspirant should aspire for dharma and śukla-dhyāna. Dharma-dhyāna is initial stage of practice to purify citta. In śukla-dhyāna the practice to stoppage of passions becomes matured. There are four kinds of śukla-dhyāna.

  1. Sukṣma -kriyā - pratipātī (सूक्ष्म- क्रिया - प्रतिपाती)
  2. Pṛthakatva-vitarka - savicāra (पृथक्त्व वितर्क - सवीचार)
  3. Ekatva-vitarka - avicāra (एकत्व वितर्क - अवीचार)
  4. Samucchina -kriyā-nivṛtti (समुच्छिन्न - क्रिया - निवृत्ति)

In first kind of dhyāna the practice of dhyāna becomes matured on different grounds of word, meaning, mind and speech. In second kind of dhyāna the practice of dhyāna becomes more matured on indifferent ground. Practicing both kinds of meditation, an aspirant becomes all-knowing, all-seeing, free from passions and full of endless power. He at the end of life, sequence wise ceases the activity of mind, speech and body. This is called Sukṣma-kriyā-pratipātī-dhyāna. Even in this stage the subtle activity like exhale and inhale remains rest. While this activity is also get ceased, that is called ‘Samucchinna-kriyā-nivṛtti-dhyāna’. The essential meaning of tapa under nirjarā is Śukla-dhyāna. This meditation is the fire. The worldly jiva is the iron. An aspirant is directed that he should burn the flame of fire by creating wind through fan of penances (tapa). Being paraṁ-yogi you make your soul as shining and pure as the iron turns to be gold.

झाणं हवेइ अग्गी तवयरणं भत्तली समक्खादो।
जीवो हवेइ लोहं धम्मिदव्वो परम जोगीहिं।।
Jhāṇaṁ havei aggī tavayaraṇaṁ bhattalī samakkhādo.
Jīvo havei lohaṁ dhammidavvo paraṁ jogīhiṁ...
(Dhyāna is fire. Worldly jiva is iron. Becoming yogi makes you pure shining gold by melting yourself in the fire of penance.)
(Ācārya Kundkund: Samaya Sāra, 5/233)

Ācārya Kundkund has stated that, “As one bound in shackles gets released only on breaking the shackles, so also the self attains emancipation only by the breaking karmic-bondage.

जह बंधे छेत्तूण य बंधण बद्धो दु पावदि विमोक्खं।
तह बंधे छेत्तूण य जीवो संपवदि विमोक्खं।।
Jaha bandhe chėttōṇa ya bandhaṇa baddho du pāvadi vimokkhaṁ.
Taha bandhe chėttōṇa ya Jīvo saṁpavadi vimokkhaṁ…
(Ācārya Kundkund: Samaya Sāra, 292)

The karmas get dissociated from soul through the practice of vow, vigilance, tapa-dhyāna, being free from passions. Some monks, following wrong instruction, turn away (from control). They are dull, wrapped in delusion. While they imitate the life of monks, (saying), 'We shall be free from attachment,' they enjoy the pleasures that offer themselves. Through wrong instruction the (would-be) sages trouble themselves (for pleasures); thus they sink deeper and deeper in delusion, (and cannot get) to this, nor to the opposite shore. Those who are freed (from attachment to the world and its pleasures), reach the opposite shore i.e. moksha, final liberation. Generally, for liberation, philosophies talks about the renouncing of the attachment and aversion. Jain religion deems that if the physical particle of acquisitive desire that defiles the bliss-quality of soul remains up to any degree, the possibility of revival of world cycle exists -

अणाणाय पुट्ठा वि एगे नियट्टंतिं, मदा मोहेण पाउडा।।
Aṇāṇāya putthā vi ege niyattanti, madā moheṇa pāuḍa…
(If a physical particle of acquisitive desire that defiles the bliss-quality of soul remains in the ignorant aspirant, he re-diverts towards the world).
(Acārāṅga, 1/2/2)

Ācārya Umāsvamī has expounded the difference between (1) faith deluding karma and (2) conduct deluding karma. Conduct deluding karma is subtler than passions. Roots of that go deeper into citta. Because of this Ācārya Umāsvamī states -

Kaṣāyodayāttīvra pariṇāmāshcāritra mohasya…
(Intense feelings induced by the rise of the passions cause the influx of conduct-deluding karmas.)
(Tattvārth Sūtra: 6/14)

Only if a single physical particle of deluding karma, that defiles the bliss-quality of soul remains in an aspirant, he does not attain omniscience. It can be stated in terms of Jain philosophy that at that stage though an aspirant subsides still he cannot be sayogī-kevalī, he requires complete annihilation of the deluding karma. There is difference between suppression or subsidence (upaśama) and destruction or annihilation (kṣaya). This difference must be understood.

After renouncing the house hold life an aspirant takes the first step of sādhanā. And through this he upgrades the purity of soul and conquers the passions. He conquers pride through softness, conceit through humility and greed through purity and restraining and becomes passionless. Lord Mahāvīra not only says aspirants to do this much but also says them that only subsidence or suppression of delusion is not sufficient but complete destruction or annihilation of deluding karma is must. His statement is:

एवं कम्माणि खीयंति, मोहणिज्जे खयं गए।
‘Evaṁ kammāṇī khīyanti, mohṇijje khayaṁ gaye.
(After annihilation of the deluding karma remaining karma also get destroyed).
(Daśāśruta Skandha, 5)

The delusion gets subsided within a part of moment. The aspirant may believe during subsidence that he has overcome the delusion. But delusion appears again. If the aspirant gets unable to annihilate the appeared delusion then he is again caught in the world-cycle of death and birth. It can be explained in the language of psychology. The subsidence happens on the ground of conscious mind. Peace seems to be appeared everywhere from outside. Upaśamana appears for a moment, it is not a permanent remedy. Being separated from conscious mind the upaśama shifts to unconscious mind. Because of this, the aspirant is unable to recognize the subsided delusion.

Aspirant may have delusion regarding his honor. He may have delusion regarding his fame. He may have delusion regarding his renounce. He may have delusion regarding his prestige. He may have delusion regarding a particular book. He may have delusion regarding a particular pilgrim. He may have delusion regarding Ācārya of a religious sect. Gautama Gaṇadhara (गौतम गणधर) had delusion in Lord Mahāvīra. Lord Mahāvīra recognized this and said to Gautama Gaṇadhara (गौतम गणधर), “the shramaṇa (श्रमण) or monks younger than you had become omniscient but you could not be the same because you have strong delusion towards me.” The delusion of Gautama for Lord Mahāvīra when got diluted only then he could attain the omniscience. The world of the deluding karma is very subtle and widely pervasive. Unless aspirant becomes aware of this mystery he cannot attain omniscience. On attaining omniscience the delusion does not arise again. The reason of this is that only ignorant jiva are obscured by delusion. On getting the seed of deluding karma burnt their chances of re-growing get finished.

“.........कम्मा न रोहंति, मोहणिज्जे खयं गते”।
‘…………..kammā na rohanti, mohṇijje khayaṁ gate’.

In this context, the following sutra is worth to quote:

जस्स न विज्जदि रागो, दोसो मोहो व जोगपरिकम्मो।
तस्स सुहासुहडहणो, झाणमओ जायए अग्गी।।
Jassa na vijjadi rāgo, doso moho va jogaparikammo.
Tassa suhāsuhadahaṇo, jhāṇamao jayae aggi...
यस्य न विद्यते रागो, द्वेषो मोहो वा योगपरिकर्म।
तस्य शुभाशुभदहनो, ध्यानमयो जायते अग्निः।।
(Samaṇa Suttam, 487)

On being annihilated the deluding karma the rest of karmas also gets annihilated. It has been stated that on being destroyed the deluding karma, all the karmas get destroyed.

“........ कम्माणि णस्संति, मोहणिज्जे खयं गए।।
‘………….kammani ṇassanti,mohṇijje khayaṁ gaye’.

Here a query arises that why even the auspicious attachment of Gautama Gaṇadhara caused hindrance in attaining him omniscience. Lord Mahāvīra says that the auspicious attachment is a kind of transformed delusion (moha). Until even the small particle of delusion exists, the sense of samatā (समता = equality or equanimity) does not take place. Right conduct is dharma. Samatā (समता = equality or equanimity) is first step in samayik and complete purity of soul is its result. That which is dharma is the Samatā (समता = equality or equanimity). The Samatā (समता = equality or equanimity) is outcome that emerges from the soul which is devoid of attachment and aversion. This was the reason that Lord Mahāvīra attained Samatā (समता = equality or equanimity) and preached that:

सव्वं जगं तू समयाणुपेही। पियमप्पियं कस्स विनो करेज्जा।।
Savvaṁ jagaṁ tu samayāṇupehī.
piyamappiyaṁ kassa vino karejjā..
(Looking at all people with an impartial mind, one should not do anything to please or to harm them.)
(Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1/10/7)

It is the established truth of Jain Philosophy in relation to soul that one should restrain none other than the self.. Further, it is very difficult to restrain the self. It is said:

अप्पा चेव दमेयव्वो, अप्पा हु खलु दुद्दमो।
Appā ceva dameyavvo, appā hu khalu duddamo.
आत्मा चैव दमितव्यः, आत्मा एव खलु दुर्दमः।
(Samaṇa Suttam, 127)

The main difference between Jain Philosophy and some other philosophies and religions is that while they invoke divine help, mercy and grace for liberation, Jainism trusts in self-purification and has full confidence that through practice of right wisdom, faith and conduct self gets purified and liberated.

Just after complete annihilation of deluding karma remaining three karma - which directly attack soul viz. (1) Jñānāvaraṇīya karma ज्ञानावरणीय कर्म (sentience -obstructing -karma), (2) Darśanāvaraṇīya karma दर्शनावरणीय कर्म (perception obstructing karma)and (3) Antarāya karma अंतराय कर्म (obstructing karma) also get annihilated. Soul itself never gets annihilated. The infinite knowledge is reveled through soul. From integrated point of view infinite knowledge, dharma, soul, infinite-bliss all these are synonymous of soul. From divisional point of view (भेद-दृष्टि - bhedadṛṣṭi), the below mentioned eternal qualities of soul emerges:

(1) Infinite power of knowledge or omniscience (keval-jñāna = केवल ज्ञान).

(2) Infinite power of perception (keval-darshana = केवल दर्शन).

(It has been described in the context of soul in Jain Philosophy that consciousness is the fundamental characteristic or nature of soul. The soul is capable of upayoga (manifestation of consciousness into intuition and knowledge/cognitive activity of knowledge and perception).It is said that upayoga is the distinctive mark of the soul/self:

उपयोगो लक्षणम्
Upayogo lakṣaṇam.
(Tattvārth Sūtra, 2/8)

(Upayoga is of two kinds, with form and without form. The formless upayoga is understood as perception (दर्शन) whereas upayoga with form is the cognition of the object called jñāna (ज्ञान))

(3) Charity attainment (dāna-labdhi = दान लब्धि).

(4) Gain attainment (lābha-labdhi = लाभ लब्धि).

(5) Enjoyment attainment (bhoga-labdhi = भोग लब्धि).

(6) Repeated enjoyment attainment (upabhoga-labdhi = उपयोग लब्धि).

(7) Prowess attainment (bala-labdhi = सामर्थ्य एवं बल लब्धि).

(8) Right belief attainment (smyaktva-labdhi = सम्यक्त्व लब्धि).

(9) Right Conduct attainment (cāritra-labdhi = चारित्र लब्धि.

It is said that because of these attainments, a huge number of living beings of all kinds can hear and understand the teachings of a sayogī-kevalī with ease within a very wide & large area, and that in the course of preaching, no danger, disease, or natural disaster occurs within that area.

These own qualities of soul appear only after annihilation of the destructive karmas, i.e. karmas that are instrumental in destroying intrinsic qualities of the soul.

6. Renunciation of egoistic thoughts or giving up attachment to the body (Vyutsarga = व्युत्सर्ग):

The renunciation of fascination of the world as well as of the passions like anger etc. and understanding of this that anything of the world is not my thing is ‘Vyutsarga’.

From integrated or composite point of view (abhedadṛṣṭi) the real nature of the soul is evolved. The aspirant becomes sayogī-kevalī. The activities of body, speech and mind keep continued. The process of karmic bondage is stopped.

Sayogī-kevalī also practices tapa or meditation.

“Knowledge which shines without quivering like the steady flame of a candle is meditation”.

(S.A.Jain: Reality (English translation of Sarvārthasiddhi of Shree Pujyapāda) (1960))

A query has been raised in ‘Pravacansāra’ about the relevancy of the penance (tapa) in relation to a Sayogī-kevalī. What is the relevance of tapa or meditation after attaining the stage of a Sayogī-kevalī? The answer is - the unlimited wise arhanta meditate to enjoy the natural eternal bliss of the soul. Use of infinite knowledge and faith is the virtue of soul. At the time, when an omniscient uses his infinite knowledge and faith with full concentration and steadiness that duration is named as meditation. And his only attainment of pure consciousness devoid of vibration of the soul space points (ātma-pradeśa) and getting completely relaxed in its own nature is tapa.

In order to attain position from Sayogī-kevalī to Ayogī kevalī and arhanta to siddha aspirant performs a sañlekhanā tapa (संलेखना तप) (voluntary death or passionless end).While body seems to be burden; he also tries to get free from the body. He goes to samādhi being pacific and cheerful mind renouncing eating; thinking about soul, concentrating in samādhi and prepares him for emancipation in the samādhi. The Jain technical term for stoppage of the activity of mind, speech and body is called sūkṣma-kriyā-pratipatī-dhyāna (सूक्ष्म-क्रिया-प्रतिपाती-ध्यान). Even in this stage the subtle activity like inhale and exhale remains active.

At the time when the respiration is also ceased that is the stage of ‘samucchinna-kriyā-nivṛtti-dhyāna’ (समुच्छिन्न-क्रिया-निवृत्ति-ध्यान). At that stage, the non-attacking karmas to soul also get annihilated. Aspirant becomes ayogī-kevalī. He becomes devoid of karma, becomes an emancipated and after all he turns himself from cause-Supreme-Being (kāraṇa-paramātmā-svarūspa) to effect-Supreme-Being (kārya-paramātmā-svarūspa).

Original Title:
भगवान महावीर एवं जैन दर्शन
Bhagwaan Mahaveer Evam Jain Darshan
English Translation:
Dr. Pradyumna Shah Singh
Department of Religious Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala, India
HN4U Online Edition:
in progress
showing the available English renderings.

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Acārāṅga
  2. Anger
  3. Antarāya
  4. Antarāya Karma
  5. Body
  6. Citta
  7. Conceit
  8. Concentration
  9. Consciousness
  10. Darśanāvaraṇīya
  11. Darśanāvaraṇīya Karma
  12. Daśavaikālika
  13. Dharma
  14. Dharma Dhyāna
  15. Dhyāna
  16. Equanimity
  17. Gautama
  18. Gaṇadhara
  19. Greed
  20. Jain Philosophy
  21. Jainism
  22. Jiva
  23. Jñānāvaraṇīya
  24. Jñānāvaraṇīya Karma
  25. Karma
  26. Karmas
  27. Kevalī
  28. Kundkund
  29. Kṣaya
  30. Mahāvīra
  31. Meditation
  32. Moha
  33. Moksha
  34. Nirjarā
  35. Omniscient
  36. Pride
  37. Raudra Dhyāna
  38. Samatā
  39. Samaya
  40. Samayik
  41. Samaṇa
  42. Shramaṇa
  43. Shukla
  44. Siddha
  45. Skandha
  46. Soul
  47. Space
  48. Space points
  49. Sutra
  50. Svādhyāya
  51. Sādhanā
  52. Sūtra
  53. Sūtrakṛtāṅga
  54. Tapa
  55. Upayoga
  56. Upaśama
  57. Upaśamana
  58. Vinaya
  59. Vyutsarga
  60. samādhi
  61. Ācārya
  62. Ācārya Umāsvamī
  63. Ārta Dhyāna
  64. ज्ञान
  65. दर्शन
  66. व्युत्सर्ग
  67. श्रमण
  68. सम्यक्त्व
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