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Environmental Ethics And Its Relevance : An Analytical Study

Published: 31.12.2007
Updated: 02.07.2015

JAIN VISHVA BHARATI UNIVERSITY


INTRODUCTION

Stride of mankind from Ape Age to the present advance modern age is not a miracle, which took place in few seconds. Man being an extraordinary component of environment made this possible by implying his intellect, power and vigour. In his beautiful journey of development, nature proved to be the true companion right from the very beginning of his journey. It revealed itself gradually to the man while he was steeping towards manhood. Initially he was influenced by physical factors of climate, soil, water, air, place etc. 1 Hence, his relation with nature were symbiotic and friendly. He also had respect for the devotion of nature towards him. His tendency was to walk after nature. As far as human nature is concerned he always wants to dominate his surroundings. Soon with increasing exercise of superior brainpower the relation between man and nature and man and other life forms and also with inanimate physical constituents got changed from symbiotic to predatory. His approach, behaviour and interactions became more and more anthropocentric arrogating to himself the exclusive rights to use and exploit all others for his own pleasure and increasing greed. 2 With the advancement science and technology, and increasing number of population man was inclining towards maximum use of resources. After industrial revolution the rate of exploitation and consumption of resources increased too much. In addition to direct pollution of environment by industrial emission of poisonous gases into atmosphere and toxic effluents into water system and soil the most harmful impact of industrialization is that it is triggering consumerism more and more, and to meet the increasing demands more and more industries are coming up which further triggers consumerism and the vicious cycle is going on. Before industrialization it was only increasing number of people that was adversely affecting the environment. Now it is double-edged sword i.e. of population increase and consumerism that is cutting ruthlessly the very fabric of environment safety. Excesses by mankind in overexploitation of environment constituents are polluting and endangering not only the earth but outer space also.

PROBLEM

The scenario, as of now and evolving the same was, is very gloomy. The continuing degradation of environment and depletion of life supporting natural recourses by exploding population and its reckless consumerism are matter of serious concern. The air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil, which produces our food, are getting more and more polluted. In many cities air has become so much polluted by vehicular and industrial emission that people require masks and frequent oxygen intake. The water in most of rivers and other surface and underground water bodies is so dangerously polluted by industrial household and other effluents that it is not safe even for bathing, much less for drinking. Experts fear that if population, pollution and consumerism continue to grow there will be fierce wars for water in future. 3 Because of over exploitation of underground water the water table is receding fast and has gone down at many places from few meters to hundred of meters. This has also increased the fluoride content in water at several places causing flurosis. Even in the largest water bodies, oil spills and the other wastes including the hazardous atomic wastes are polluting the seas surrounding the planet earth. Because of pollution and over exploitation of various products from sea, its fishes, corals, shells, minerals and others, the eco-systems so important for climate balance on earth, is being damaged dangerously.

The health of soil is getting more and more precarious being over exploited for feeding increasing number of mouths. Its natural productivity has almost been decimated. The living soil has been turned into an inorganic machine. Requiring more and more doses of chemical fertilizers to produce same quantity and pesticides to protect monoculture crops from pest, these are poisoning the air, soil and water bodies more and more. The poisonous pesticides are getting into human system through food chain and causing of various asthmatics, psychiatric, cardiac, other serious disease and even cancer. Forests, the important renewable resources are the greatest casualty of galloping increase in population, consumerism and urbanization. This has resulted in increasing erosion and consequent silting of important dams and rivers. In absence of forests infiltration of rainwater is reduced and there are devastating floods during rains and then the rivers are dry for the rest of the year. Every tree is a dam more efficient than concrete ones to conserve and store water.

Forests work as sink by absorbing obnoxious and polluting gases and convert them in useful products and purify the air. They ameliorate climate, regulate rainfall, protect from fury of devastating storms, and provide a host of products to fulfill human needs. The erratic climate changes, green house effects, widening ozone hole, melting of arctic ice-caps (already more than 48%) and glaciers are all threatening our health and even survival. These renewable resources of nature rejuvenate if exploited within the carrying capacity but unfortunately forests are being exploited many times more. 4 Like wise non-renewable resources the various minerals most importantly the oil, on which is based most of the economy and even agriculture all over the globe are being exploited so much that their known reserves may not last 200-300 years. Then the edifice of our civilization will crumble down, as the cracks are already visible. The matter of vanishing resources, both renewable and non renewable are not to be looked upon only, but the degradation and pollution of environment because of over uses of fossils fuels, resulting in global warming, acid rain, climate change, and depletion of ozone layer, is also to be considered seriously. The present level of exploitation is high that nothing will be left for future generations, though; it is the duty of every generation to pass on the treasure of nature for generation as they received it from their ancestors. It is paradoxical that on one hand we love our future progenies and on another hand we are accentuating the adverse for them. 5

The problem lies in our prevalent model of development, which has established consumerism as an index of development. Nation, societies and people are considered developed and even more civilized on the basis of their scale of consumption. This has triggered mad race for more and more consumerism in tendentious pursuits of insatiable sensuous pleasure ignoring the fundamental principal of sustainability, which has remained mere a slogan. A development can be sustainable only if the consumption inter-alia exploitation of resources is limited to their carrying capacity and renewablity. 6 Ignorance of mankind has put the whole living fraternity in crisis of existence.

Now the peak time has come when it is mandatory to step forward to save our mother earth. Science and technology cannot be blamed for all this calamities of environment and ills of the societies. Much depends upon how we use them. 7 There have been saner, enlightened people, saints in all ages at different places in all societies, who have been cautioning against reckless consumerism for sensuous pleasure resulting in degradation of environment and its life supporting system. They analyzed the root causes triggering transgression on nature. These are greed, ego, lust and infatuation for sensuous pleasure, which have no limits or points of satiety as more they are provided for more they increase and continue to multiply, ultimately eating away the very basic resources necessary for survival of all life forms including humans. They suggested us to adopt code of conduct to keep wants of people minimum so that demands or pressure on resources remain within the carrying capacity and renewability of resources and such societies and people under their influence lived in harmony with ambient environment in a given situation. 8 Every individual, young or old group of people, societies, nation big or small, high or low, rich or poor, educated or illiterate, strong or weak are responsible for environmental degradation. Gones are the day when pollution at one place did not have significant adverse effect on other place. 9 The degree of pollution now is so high that it is affecting everyone. It should therefore, be not only necessary but also mandatory for all to follow the fundamental principles for environment restoration and sustainable maintenance. A universal holistic approach which draws from religious or cultural values and beliefs to environmental protection is imperative if we desire to give to ourselves and to future generations an opportunity to enjoy their lives in peace and harmony with nature. Though, nature was not facing the calamities in contemporary times which it is suffering from today, yet our religion are full of environmental concern. We can find many scriptures and sayings, which can prove to be helpful in building a model of environmental ethics. Some important religion's ecological readings are being discussed below.

One of the oldest schools of thought, Hinduism, believes in the principle of sanctity of all kinds of life. Only God has absolute sovereignty over all creatures including man's life and death; man has no dominion over his own life or non-human life. Consequently man cannot act as a viceroy of God over planet nor assign degrees of relative worth to other species. It is believed in Hindu tradition that all lives are of equal value and all have the same right to existence. 10 According to Atharvaved, the earth is not for human being alone, but for other creature as well.

"Born of Thee, on the move mortal creatures; Thou bearest them—the biped and the quadruped; Thine, O Earth, are the fine races of men, for whom Surya, as he rises spreads with his rays That light that is immortal." 11

Hindu tradition accepts creation as the unfolding of the supreme into many. In every creation, whether living being or non-living, God manifests itself. All are left to interact for further evolution and development. The most important aspect of Hindu theory is the association accorded to different equities with reincarnation and deities. It is believed that Supreme Being actually gets himself incarnated in the form of various species. 12 In addition, Hindus were advised by the seers to treat all others species just like their own children. 13 "One should look upon deer, camels, monkeys, donkeys, rats, reptiles, birds and flies as though they were their own children." 14 This leads people to have reverence for animal life. It makes people compelled to behave equally and compassionately with all the creatures and nature.

Thus, establishment of the belief that as being a part of nature, any damage to nature would automatically damage to mankind also tends to have harmonious interaction with nature. It has been clearly enunciated that Hindu Rishis of the Vedic and Upnishad era perceived the value of maintaining a harmonious relationship between the needs of man and spectacular diversity of the universe. To them, nature was not only a mother to sustain their life, but it was the adobe of divinity. Consequently a Hindu is not at war with nature. 15

Nature has been an integral part of Buddhism also. Every aspect of nature is interwoven in this religion. Buddhism is a religion of love, compassion and non-violence. It propagates practice of love, compassion and non-violence not only to human beings but to all the sentiments. Hence, it believes that beings other than humans too are sensitive to happiness and suffering, they too just like human species, primarily seek happiness and shun suffering. 16

There are many factors, which contribute to and reinforce the ecological insight in Buddhism. Buddhist's philosophy of reincarnation presents the idea that in the continuous birth and rebirth of sentiments, each being is related to us ourselves, just as our parents are related to us in this life. The 'Jataks' make clear that all species of living beings are not only related but can transform into each other are essentially one. 17

"May all being at ease, secure May they be happy in heart What even they may be Wandering or stable All creatures long or great Medium-sized or small All creatures seen or unseen Living for or near Born or awaiting birth May all be happy at heart." 18

As Buddhism aims to break the cycle of rebirth it also behooves an individual to act towards the environment in a way, which will ensure a step closer to 'Nirvana'. 19 Thus we find that Buddhism provides a strong basis for environmental protection, conservation and ethics. In the very words of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, "As a boy studying Buddhism, I was taught the importance of a caring attitude towards the environment. Our practice of non-violence applies not just to human beings but to all sentiments beings, any living thing that has a mind-where there is mind, there are feelings, such as pain, pleasure and joy." 20

Jainism, though a part of Vedic tradition, presents its different philosophy on man and nature relationship. Jainism accepts that every soul whether of a man or of a mono sensed insect is autonomous and independent. It believes in the presence of soul not only in animate ones like human beings, animal, insects but in inanimate thing also which are deemed as non-living by others like water, air, fire, earth. These are called 'Sthavar Jeev' (immobile) in Jain literature. Jainism asserts that there is a beginning less co-existence of soul and matter. Whatever soul posses, whether the capacity of speech, breath or thought is the result of interaction with matter. This philosophy of Jainism makes people behave sensitively not only with living beings but with the materialistic things also. Jainism does not permit anyone to exploit even the non-living beings. Apart from the philosophy of 'Jeeva' (animate) one of the most crucial components of Jainism is its theory of nonviolence that runs through the Jain tradition like a golden thread. It involves avoidance of violence in any form through word or deed not only to human beings but to all nature and requires reverence and compassion for all living being at every step in daily life. 21 "Knowing (and renouncing) severally and singly the action against living beings. In the regions above, below, and on the surface everywhere and in all ways-the wise one neither gives pain to these bodies, nor orders others to do so, nor assents their doing so". 22

Non-violence doesn't pertain in its physical aspect only but in mental aspect also, in-fact and factually more so in it's mental aspect. Jain believes that violence should not be even in the heart, mind and brain. Non-violence should not only be practised, it should be present in mind and thinking, by way of concern and compassion towards all life in nature. In addition to Non-violence, the other tenets of Jainism, from which can be derived inspiration for preservation and conservation of environment include vegetarianism, controlled way of life and the concept of 'aparigraha'. These tenets form a basis for the conservation of nature. Practice of these principles leads the practitioners to the conservation of our mother earth. In India, where the religion has been known at least since the 6th century B.C., and in settlements abroad, Jains are in forefront of bringing greater awareness and putting these principles into practice. 23

Sikhism also believes in the principle of "Oneness of Creation. "It believes that nature is actually a bridge between man and atal (permanent), achal (stable), agam hond (impassible). Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh religion, has assigned divine attributes to nature. Sikh religion and philosophy are deeply related to nature, the animate and the inanimate world, as verses in Guru Granth Sahib demonstrate. 24 Sikhism believe that man should know the eternal truth of his place in the universe. Being Creator of the world, God did not confer absolute power on man to control and dominate nature. Having created the world, safe and environment, God sustains nourishes and protect it all but, He also has power to destroy it at its appropriate time. 25

Sikhism asserts that the human race is not an alien species foisted upon this planet to dominate and exploit it, but rather an integral part of nature itself linked to the rest of creation by indissoluble bounds. Man's relationship with environment is physical and spiritual. Man has to maintain such a balance between both physical and spiritual relationship that neither, his own well-being nor that of universe is threatened. Sikhism teaches that so far as man and nature live in perfect harmony of the divine, ecology remains benevolent to man. Environment and Ecological balance can only be achieved if conservation designed by God is maintained, and it can only be maintained to adherence to ethical behaviour. 26

Christianity, like other religion believes in one God, who is the creator of this universe. He created everything that exists, freely, by his word. He declared everything to be good, indeed, very good. He created nothing unnecessarily and has omitted nothing that is necessary. Thus, even in the mutual opposition of the various elements of the universe, there exists a divine harmony. He made man and woman in the image of himself and entrusted them with a unique dominion over all visible creatures. 27 "Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the flow of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth". 28

Though, man is bestowed dominion over the world, yet his dominion cannot be understood as license to abuse, spoil, squander or destroy what God has made to manifest his glory. This dominion cannot be anything other than a stewardship in symbiosis with all creatures. Every act of human of irresponsibility towards creatures is an abomination and an offence against the divine wisdom, which sustain and gives purpose to be interdependent harmony of the universe. 29

Man has to recognize God's exclusive, all prevailing and ultimately absolute dominion over everything, encompassing all life including mankind, and his stewardship over nature and environment granted to him as a boon and favour from almighty. St. Fransis has said that work was a God given grace to be exercised in that spirit of faith and devotion to which every temporal consideration must subordinate. Christianity believes that all and every form of destructive human activity such as wars resulting in destruction of cultures, destruction of environment, destruction of natural resources which will almost become a revenging curse for human race, ultimately hindering the man as individuals and societies from perusing a fulfilling life and their total vocation within the harmony of this universe and God's scheme of things, which in turn will make human society victim of degradation brought on by himself. 30

Confucianism also stressed a way of life, which is full of virtue, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and sincerity. These are the basic ethical principles of Confucianism. 31 Confucius teaching encouraged man to have a religious reverence for all life. A place for every creature is the only way to achieve harmony. These ethical principles are found in the Book of Analects. 32 Confucianism focus on the innate goodness of humans and emphasizes the seed of virtue that need be cultivated and also advocates of human government that allowed both the people and the land to flourish. "If you do not interfere with the busy seasons in the fields, then there will be more grain than the people can eat; if you do not allow nets with too fine a mesh to be used in large ponds, then there will be more fish and turtles than they can eat; if hatchets and axes are permitted in the forests on the hills only in the proper seasons, then there will be more timber than they can use. When the people have grain, more fish and turtles than they can eat, and more timber than they can use, then in the support of their parents when alive and in the mourning of them when dead, they will be able to have no regrets over anything left undone." 33 Humaneness is the most comprehensive virtue in the Confucius tradition. As comprehensive compassion it is like a vital energy that nourishes the life force in all things. 34 "Humaneness as the principle of love is comparable to a tree and a spring of water. It is like the will to grow, like the seeds of peaches and apricots for humaneness as constituting the way, consists in the fact that the mind of Heaven and earth to produce things is present in everything." 35

Confucianism supports an anthropocentric environmental ethics. Environmental destruction, degradation and defilement would in most cases impose harmful effects on other people and thus violate the regard for others and justice that are the important values Confucianism cherishes. Thus we find the contribution to a universal environmental ethic of Confucianism is clear. 36

Taoism though, is not a religion but a way of life taught by Lao-tze around the 3rd century B.C. The basic beliefs and doctrines are to be found in a slender volume of poems, the Tao Teh king. The Taoist conception of creation is metaphysical. It is "Tao, eternal and name less. Yet, at the same time it is all pervasive, eternal, life sustaining and nourishing." 37 Tao stands for the ultimate reality of nature. In Taoism there is a natural relation between man and nature. Man is viewed as a member of creation and is therefore, "without exception internally linked to the Tao as well as to everything else" 38

Man receives no special place from Tao, thus, homocentrism is alien thing in the Taoist axiological ordering of beings. As well, man is considered to be endowed with intellect, and thus quite capable of living in harmony with nature. In Taoist thinking this mean there is no unbridgeable chasm between the two, they are interconnected. The extent of Taoist harmony between man and nature reaches down to the smallest of creatures for Taoist texts adjure that even insect and growing things, herbs and trees may not be injured. 39 Taoism believes that uncontrolled attitudes to nature can only result in disharmony and hurtful results. Anyone who tries to do things in violation of this inter connectness is doomed to failure. In order to prevent such transgressions, the Taoist books refer to two classes of serration one was Shan Yu, inspector of mountains, and other, Liu-Heng, inspector of forests. These officials, though their protective duties, enforced conservation practices by admonishing, for example, what trees could be cut, by whom and when, and warned against the consequences of deforestation. Thus Chinese religions present an image of man in harmony with and sympathetic to nature. 40

Zoroastrianism presents an antithesis to both western and oriental religious beliefs for it lays greater importance on the physical world than spiritual world. However its view of the origin of man and the creation are similar, to the western religions. It believes that there is one supreme God who creates both man and the universe. Man's role in the universe is to care for the physical world, and in caring for the physical world man needs to be more conscious of the environment, which exists to sustain mankind. 41 Though Zoroastrianism proposed the enjoyment of a fulfilling life in the physical world without the fear of spiritual sanctions, yet there are constraints that enjoyment must always be in accord with one's natural environment. 42 Thus the theme of Zoroastrianism is harmony and a state of balance in the physical world.

Zoroastrianism accepts the dualism between the forces of good and evil in the physical world. Therefore, the Zoroastrian follower strives for good and purity in his thoughts, words and deeds. The act of purity is the essence of man's relationship with nature because it is the basis for cleanliness in daily life. 43 This cleanliness extends itself to protecting the "Seven Creations"—The skies, waters, earth, plants, cattle, man and fire. 44 It is important that the seven creations remain clean because they are the sacred elements of nature and venerated (regarded) as such. The Zadspram, which forms the basis for much of the Zoroastrianism religion, rules that the "Seven creations must be kept" clear, purified of dead matter, menstruate impurity, dry dead matter and other harm so that the essences which may be composed there from may be of a very proper nature, very fragment, very clean and having very little blemish. In contrast to other religions, Zoroastrianism offers mankind freedom from spiritual constraints, for man can concentrate his energies into both enjoying and nourishing his environment, and work on following the essence of Zoroastrianism the ecological harmony with nature. 45

Islam, through his teachings, offers an opportunity to understand the natural order and human responsibility within its principles of 'Tawhid' (the unity of creation), Fitra (humanities place in creation), Mizan (moderation and reason) and Khalifa (stewardship). 46 Islam progresses that Allah has created everything in universe and laid down regulation for its utilization. Mankind's role on earth is that of a Khalifa, vise regent or trustee of God. We are God's stewards and agents on Earth not the matters of it. God has entrusted mankind with its safekeeping. Every man is answerable of his actions, for the way, which he uses or abuses the trust of God. God's trustees are responsible for maintaining the unity of his creation, the integrity of flora and fauna, its world-life and natural environment. Setting one's need against another or letting one's end predominate over another cannot violate unity. Islam doesn't permit anyone to exploit or harm nature and resources for their selfish need. There are the scriptures, which lay emphasis on conservation of resources and warn humans not to exploit the nature for selfish needs. Islam propagates not only the conservation of nature but the progression also. 47

"O sons of Adam........... Eat and drink, but do not be wasteful, for God does not like the prodigals." 48

Islam motivates not only the conservation of nature, but also for the promotion of it. The prophet Mohammed, the founder of Islam, said that whoever plants a tree and diligently looks after it until it matures and bears fruit, is rewarded. 49 Thus, such values like steward ship of mankind over the world, treatment of mankind with other living beings equally, accountability of everyone for their deeds towards the God, encapsulate environmental consciousness in Islam tradition. When these values are adopted and become an intrinsic part of our mental and physical wakeup, our environmental concern become concrete.

Bahaullah, the founder-prophet of Bahai faith lays down that Nature is the manifestation of God, in all His Pristine majesty and gracious bounty towards mankind, evidencing his purpose in the creation of this world. The immeasurable diversity in nature is his purposeful doing to reflect and stress the basic relationship between human race and natural environment in its totality, as created by him. This implies the will of God, to respect and protect the nature in its entire diversity, as trust in their hands, for which we are answerable as trustees for future generations. The Bahai faith being the latest revelation to mankind, it has to be taken as of a special relevance, since nature is more threatened today, than ever before, by man made perils of devouring consumerism, resulting in the accelerated depletion of nature, in decades, which nature took centuries to create at one end of spectrum to the night-mare of nuclear annihilation which haunts humanity at the other end of spectrum.

About a century age Bahaullah proclaimed that humanity has entered a new epoch as has been promised by all religions of the world, from time to time. This epoch will bring the ultimate peace and enlightenment for humanity but we have to be prepared to receive that peace and enlightenment in all humility. Primarily by realizing the basic oneness of God, nature and man in all its wholeness and mutual interdependence, if we fail to do so, the alternatively possible scenario sounds awful. 50

Accepting the union of man, nature and God, all religions consider it a prime responsibility of mankind, in view of being nature's custodians, to make the defence and protection of life system in all its forms and shapes at the centre of our concern. Through the review of ecological readings in each of the world religions, we can perceive that almost all religious tradition agree to a grater or lesser extent on the following important points:

    1. The natural world has value in itself and does not exist solely to serve human needs.
    2. There is a significant continuity of being between human and non- human living beings, even though humans do have a distinctive role. This continuity can be felt and experienced.
    3. Non-human living beings are morally significant in the eyes of god and/or in the cosmic order.
    4. The interdependence of human life on the natural world can and should be acknowledged in ritual and other expressions of appreciation and
      gratitude.
    5. Moral norms such as justice, compassion and reciprocity apply both to human beings and to non-human beings. The well being of humans and
      the well being of non-human beings are inseparably connected.
    6. These are legitimate and illegitimate uses of nature.
    7. Greed and destructiveness are condemned. Restraint and protection are commended.
    8. Human beings are obliged to be aware and responsible in living in harmony with the natural world, and should follow the specific practices
      for this prescribed by their tradition. 51

Thus, it has been demonstrated that our religion possess the very values, ethics and code of conduct, which, if practiced seriously, can prove to be instrumental in pulling up our mother earth from the severe crisis of extinction and instinct of survival. Survival doesn't means survival of only present generation, but of infinite future generations too. If we continue to exhaust and pollute natural resources as of now the lives of future generations will not only be miserable but their survival may be at stake. No living being lest the human beings intend ill for its future progenies. To make life better and worth living for present and future generation a minimum ethical code for good environment is essential at national level and also a global code of environmental ethics to guide the behaviour of the global society. 52

What is common among various great religious tradition with regard to ecology and environment will provide us the clue for identification and formulation of an appropriate code of conduct for environment protection, conservation and reconstruction. Now the duty of mankind is to adopt a model of environmental ethics derived from the convergence of the perceptions of world religions. That model of ethics will involve stewardship of the living and non-living systems of the earth in order to maintain their sustainability for present and future, allowing development with forbearance and equity.


References:

1
Environmental Ethics, S.M. Jain, p-1
2
Ibid, pp. 1-2.
3
Ibid, p. 3.
4
Ibid, pp. 4-5.
5
Ibid, p. 5.
6
Ibid, p. 5.
7
Environmental Ethics: A Dialogue of Cultures, p-3
8
Environmental Ethics, S.M. Jain, p-6
9
Ibid, p. 7-8.
10
World Religions and the Environment, p-59.
11
Atharvaved, 12.1.15.
12
World religions and the Environment, p. 169.
13
Ibid, p. 170.
14
Shrimad Bhagwat Gita, 7.14.9.
15
World Religion and The Environment, p. 182.
16
Ibid, p. 319.
17
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p-60
18
Metta Sutta or Discourse on Loving Endness, Cited in Harvey Aronson Love and Sympathy in Thervada Buddhism, p. 49.
19
World Religions and the Environment, pp. 320-321.
20
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p. 61.
21
World Religion and The Environment, pp. 208-210.
22
Acharanga Sutra, 1.7.5
23
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p. 63.
24
World Religions and the Environment, p. 283.
25
Ibid, pp. 283-284.
26
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p. 12.
27
World Religions and the Environment, p. 324.
28
Genesis, 1.31.
29
World Religions and The Environment, p. 324.
30
Ibid, p. 326.
31
Ibid, pp. 307-308.
32
What the Great Religions Believe,p-53.
33
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p. 64.
34
Ibid, p. 65.
35
Ibid, pp. 67-68. "Chu Hsi on Humaness".
36
Environmental Ethics: A Dialogue of Cultures, p. 72.
37
Taoism and the Foundation of Environmental Ethics,p-33
38
Ibid, p. 339.
39
World Religions and the Environment, p. 309.
40
Ibid, p. 309.
41
Ibid, pp. 303-304.
42
The Relevance of Zoroastrianism in the Modern World, p. 2.
43
World Religions and the Environment, p. 304.
44
The relevance of Zoroastrianism in the Modern World, p. 2.
45
World Religions and the Environment, p. 304.
46
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p. 54.
47
World Religions and the Environment, pp. 330-331.
48
Qran, 7.31.
49
World Religions and the Environment, p. 331.
50
Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action, p. 8.
51
Ibid, p. 78.
52
Environmental Ethics, S.M. Jain, p. 10.
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