The Enigma Of The Universe : Contents of the Book

Published: 08.08.2014
Updated: 02.07.2015

 

CONTENTS[1]

  Blessings 3
  Foreword 5-7
  Author's Preface 9-28

 

Prologue

1-8
  Science and Philosophy 1
  Views of Scientists 3
  A Comparative Study 4


CHAPTER 1
WHAT IS UNIVERSE?

 

 

 
(A) NATURE OF REALITY: IDEALISM AND REALISM 9-85
  Substance, Quality & Change 9-40
  Fundamental Questions 14
1. Philosophical Idealism 16-20
 
Plato
16
 
Other Idealists
18
 
Hume
18
 
Kant
18
2. Idealism of the Scientists 21-26
  Sir A. S. Eddington 21
  Sir James Jeans 22
  Hermann Weyl 25
  Other Scientists 26
3. Philosophical Realism 26-31
  Ancient Realists 27
  Modern Realists: Descartes 28
  Bertrand Russell 29
  Prof. Henry Margenau 31
4. Realism of the Scientists 32-40
  Albert Einstein 32
  Werner Heisenberg 34
  Whittaker 36
  Hans Reichenbach 37
  C.E.M. Joad  37
  Materialistic Realism of Soviet Scientists  38
(B) SPACE AND TIME  41-83
1. In Western Philosophy  42-51
  Plato and Aristotle  43
  Scholasticism  45
  Descartes, Gassendi and Leibnitz 47
  Kant  49
2. Pre-Einsteinian Scientific Concept  51-54
  Optics and Mechanics  52
  Ether and Wave Theory of Light  53
3. Discovery of Theory of Relativity:
  Michelson And Morley's Experiment  54-60
  Fitzgerald and Lorentz  56
  Dr. Albert Einstein  58
4. General Theory of Relativity  60-67
  Newton's Laws  60
  Generalization by Einstein  61
  Two Imaginary Experiments  62
  Equivalence of Gravitation and Inertia 63
  Field Point Of View 64
  Curvature of Space  65
  Features of Gravitational Field  66
5. Post-Einsteinian Scientific Concept  67-72
  Physical Implications  70
6. Non-Euclidean Geometry And Einsteinian Space  72-77
  Discovery of Non-Euclidean Geometry  73
  Space: Euclidean or Non-Euclidean?  74
  Einsteinian Space: Non-Euclidean  76
7. Philosophical Implications of Theory of Relativity  77-84
  Einstein's Interpretation  77
  Reichenbach's Interpretation  79
  Prof. Margenau's Interpretation  83
(C) SUMMARY 84-85

 

CHAPTER 2
UNIVERSE IN MODERN SCIENCE 

86-113
(A) HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE?  86-98
1. Dilemma  87-95
2. Solution by Theory of Relativity  87
  Universe: Finite and Non-Euclidean  87
  Einsteinian Model  88
  Mathematical Computation  91
  Astronomical Calculations  93
  Other Models  94
 
3. The Expanding Universe 95-98
  Red-shift in Spectra 95
  Modified Calculations 96
  Different Interpretations 97
4. Conclusion 98
(B) HOW OLD IS THE UNIVERSE? 99-112
1. Universe with Beginning and End 99-105
  Hubble's Constant 99
  Abbe Lemaitre's View 100
  Dr. Gamow's Evolutionary Universe 100
  Heisenberg's View 101
  Prof. Martin Ryle's Theory 102
  Other Theories of Beginning of the Universe  103
  End of Universe, Second Law of Thermodynamics 104
2. Universe without Beginning and End 105-113
  Self-pulsating Universe 105
  Hyperbolic Universe 106
  Cyclic Universe 107
  Steady-state Universe 109
  Einstein's Universe 112
3. Conclusion 112
(C) SUMMARY 113
 

CHAPTER 3
JAIN COSMOLOGY

114-180
1. WHAT IS UNIVERSE? 114-131
  Metaphysics 114
  Persistence-through-Modes 115
  Qualities 116
  Space: Cosmic and Supra-cosmic 117
  Positive and Negative Ethers 117
  Kāla (Time) Substance 124
  Pudgala (Matter) and Jīva (Soul) 129
  Four-point Cosmological Theory 131
2. UNIVERSE: SIZE AND SHAPE 131-165
  How Big is the Universe? 133
  Mathematical Discussion 136
  Digambara Tradition 136
  Shvetambara Tradition 140
  The Difference in Two Traditions and its
  Critical Examination  144
  In the Light of Modern Mathematical Methodology 155
  COMPUTATION OF RAJJU 159
1. Computation of Rajju based on Colebrookes's Definition 162
2. Computation of Rajju based on the Magnitude of the Continents and Oceans of the Middle Universe  165
3. UNIVERSE FROM TIME-POINT OF VIEW  168-179
  Beginninglessness and Endlessness of Universe  168
  Kāla-cakra (Time-cycle)  173
  Present Age  177
  The Topic of the Severest Aeon of Extreme Privation 178
A. SUMMARY 180

 

CHAPTER 4
A CRITIQUE 

 181-329
I. What is Universe?       181-273
A. PHILOSOPHICAL IDEALISM & JAIN VIEW  181-189
1. Various Forms of Idealism 181-182
  Pantheism  181
  Transcendentalism 182
  Empiricism  182
2. Theism, Panthesim & Jainism  182-183
  Refutation of Pantheism  183
3. Plato & Jainism  183-184
  Plato's Theory of Idea  183
  Jain Metaphysical View  184
  Russell's Refutation of Plato's View 184
4. Kant & Jainism .184-186
  Comparison  185
  Contrast  186
5. Empiricism & Jain Philosophy 186-189
  Refutation on Common-sense Grounds  186
  Is Reality Independent of Perception?  188
B. IDEALISM OF THE SCIENTISTS AND JAIN VIEW  189-241
1. Eddington's View and Jain View 189-228
  Confusion in Eddington's View  190
  Essence of Soul  194
  Reality of Matter  195
  Physical World  197
  Physical Knowledge  198
  Comparison with Jain View  201
  Laws of Physics  202
  Subjectivity and Objectivity of Physical Properties 207
  Explanation by Jain Theory  210
  Sensory Perception  211
  Extra-sensory-perception (E. S. P.)  212
  Rebuttal of Eddington's View  212
  Phenomenon of Colour  214
  Raman's Study of Colour  216
  Doppler Effect and Colour  219
  Relativity of Colour to Gauge  220
  Perception of Colour through Cutis  222
  Fundamental Properties of Electron  223
  Sound-not a Quality  224
  Sense-organs and Sensory Qualities  225
  Limitation of Science  226
  Conclusion  227
2. View of Sir James Jeans & Jain View  228-237
  Stebbing's Criticisms  229
  Lack of Clarity  231
  Influence of Plato and Berkeley  232
  Comparison with the Jain View  233
3. Other Idealists and the Jain View  237-241
  H.Weyl  237
  Mach  238
C. REALISM AND THE JAIN VIEW   241-262
1. Materialism and the Jain view  241
  Definition of Matter  242
  Reality of Soul  242
  Refutation of Materialism  243
I. The Methodological Argument  243
II. The Mechanical Argument:  246
III. The Cosmological Argument  249
2. Philosophy of B. Russell & Jain View  253-262
D. REALISM OF SCIENTISTS  262-273
1. Critical Realism & Jain View  262-264
2. Philosophy of Heisenberg and the Jain View  264-267
E. SUMMARY  267-273
II. SPACE & TIME: A CRITIQUE  273-298
1. Views of Western Philosophers and the Jain View  273-280
  First View  274
  Second View  278
  Third View  279
  Concept of Time  279
2. Views of Scientists and the Jain View  280-296
  Newtonian View And Jain View  280
  Theory of Relativity & Jain View  281-298
  Subjective Inability or Objective Indeterminacy 282
  Dr. Heisenberg on Absolute Space  283
  Prof. Margenau's Construct  284
  The Reality of Space-time  284
  Russell's Conceptual Space  290
  Zeno's Nest of Space  291
  Physical Aspects of the Theory of Relativity  291
  Shape of the Universe  291
  Fitzgerald Contractions  292
  Space and Time related to Each Other  294
  Macrocosms and Microcosms  296
III. SIZE & AGE OF THE UNIVERSE: A CRITIQUE 298-327
1. Einsteinan Model of Universe and Jain Loka  298-306
2. Theories of Expanding Universe and Jain Lokāloka 306-313
  Steady State Theory of Prof. Hoyle  309
3. Cyclic Theories of Universe and Descending-Ascending Time-cycle  313-319
4. Theories of Universe with Beginning and End and Jain Lokāloka  319-322
5. Theories of Universe with End and Jain Lokāloka  322-327
IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS  327-329
   

   

APPENDICES

331-402
 

APPENDIX I:
SPACE-UNITS IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY 

333-340
 

APPENDIX II:
TIME-UNITS IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY 

341-353
  Units of Countable Time  341
  Table of Units of Countable Time  343
  Units of Uncountable Time  346
  Palyopama  346-351
  According to the Śvetāmbara Tradition  346-349
1. Bāclara Uddhāra Palyopama  347
2. Sūkṣma Uddhāra Palyopama  348
3. Bādara Addhā Palyopama  348
4. Sūkṣma Addhā Palyopama 348
  According to Digambara Tradition  349-351
1. Vyavahāra palyopama  349
2. Uddhāra palyopama  350
3. Addhā Palyopama  350
  Relationships between Time-units and Space-units 351
  Sāgaropama  352-354
  According to Śvetāmbara Tradition  352
  According to the Digambara tradition  353
 
 

APPENDIX III
THEORY OF NUMBERS IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY

354-387
(A) SAṂKHYĀTA (NUMERABLE OR COUNTABLE NUMBER)  354-372
  Maximum Numerable Number (U.S.)  355
  Value of U. S. as per Digambara Tradition  355
  Mathematical Computation 357
  Definition of Utkṛṣṭa Saṃkhyāta as per the Shvetambara Tradition  368
  Mathematical Computation  369
(B) ASAṂKHYĀTA (INNUMERABLE)  373-381
1. Jaghanya Parīta Asaṃkhyāta (J.P.A)  373
2. Madhyama Parīta Asaṃkhyāta (M. P. A.)  373
3.  Utkṛṣṭa Parīta Asaṃkhyāta (U.Y. A.) 373
4.  Jaghanya Yukta Asaṃkhyāta (J. Y. A.) 374
5.   Madhyama Yukta Asaṃkhyāta (M. Y. A.) 374
6. Utkṛṣṭa Yukta Asaṃkhyāta (U. Y. A.)  374
7. Jaghanya Asaṃkhyātaa Asaṃkhyātaa (J. A. A.)  374
8. Madhyama Asaṃkhyāta Asaṃkhyātaa (M. A. A.)  375
9. Utkṛṣṭa Asaṃkhyāta Asaṃkhyāta (U. A. A.)  375
  Mathematical Computation  379
(C) ANANT A (INFINITY)  381-387
1. Jaghanya-Parita Ananta (J. P. An.)  381
2. Madhyama Parīta Ananta (M. P. An.)  382
3. Utkṛṣṭa Parīta Ananta (U. P. An.)  382
4. Jaghanya Yukta Ananta (J. Y. An.)  382
5. Madhyama Yukta Ananta (M. Y. An.)  382
6. Utkṛṣṭa Yukta Ananta (U. Y. An.)  382
7. Jaghanya Ananta Ananta (J. An. An.)  383
8. Madhyama Ananta Ananta (M. An. An.)  383
9. Utkṛṣṭa Ananta Ananta (U. An. An.)  383
 

APPENDIX IV
MATHEMATICAL METHOD OF FINDING THE VOLUME OF LOKA 

388-402
1. Approach of Dhavalākāra  388-396
  Critique  393
  Conclusion  397
2. A New Approach based on Modern Mathematical Method... 397-402
  Scope for Further Research  401
  INDEX  403-437
  BIBLIOGRAPHY  439-445
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Title: The Enigma Of The Universe Publisher: JVB University Ladnun English Edition: 2010 HN4U Online Edition: 2014

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Addhā Palyopama
  2. Albert Einstein
  3. Anant
  4. Ananta
  5. Asaṃkhyāta
  6. B. Russell
  7. Bertrand Russell
  8. Descartes
  9. Digambara
  10. Eddington
  11. Einstein
  12. Ether
  13. Gassendi
  14. Hans Reichenbach
  15. Heisenberg
  16. Henry Margenau
  17. Hermann Weyl
  18. Hume
  19. Jain Cosmology
  20. Jain Philosophy
  21. Jainism
  22. Jīva
  23. Kant
  24. Kāla
  25. Loka
  26. Objectivity
  27. Palyopama
  28. Parīta
  29. Plato
  30. Pudgala
  31. Rajju
  32. Reichenbach
  33. Russell
  34. Science
  35. Shvetambara
  36. Sir James Jeans
  37. Soul
  38. Space
  39. Werner Heisenberg
  40. Śvetāmbara
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