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Published: 30.01.2011
Updated: 22.12.2011
Kshullaka, Kshullakha

A kshullak or kshullaka

lit. small or junior

is a junior Digambar Jain monk. A kshullak wears two garments as opposed to a full monk who wears no clothes.

A kshullak is sometimes accorded the title Varni, when they are engaged in studying and teaching.

Well known kshullakas include:

  • Kshullakas Ganesh Varni
  • Kshullaka Jinendra Varni

A Digambara Jain shravaka at the highest rank of 11th pratima is either a kshullaka or an ailaka. He is just one step below a full muni. His conduct is prescribed in Vasunandi Shravakachara and Lati Samhita.

A kshullaka wears a loin cloth (kaupina) and a white rectangular cloth as a wrap. An ailak uses only a loin cloth.

A kshullaka may live in a house or may be a wanderer. He may eat food placed in his palms, or from a container. He eats once a day. He may beg from a single house or from multiple ones.

A kshullaka may keep a yajnopavita and a shikha. In Jain tradition, Narada muni is assumed to be a kshullaka Jain monk.

Kolhapur in Maharashtra was also once known as Kshullakapur because of the presence of a large number of Jain monks during the Shilahara rule.


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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Ailaka
  2. Digambar
  3. Digambara
  4. Jinendra
  5. Jinendra Varni
  6. Kolhapur
  7. Maharashtra
  8. Muni
  9. Pratima
  10. shravaka
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