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Published: 25.09.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015


Naraka (Sanskrit: नरक) is the Sanskrit word for the underworld; literally, of man.


In Jainism, Naraka is the name given to realm of existence in Jain cosmology having great suffering.

The length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is usually very long - measured in billions of years.

A soul is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma (actions of body, speech and mind), and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result. After his karma is used up, he may be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened. Jain texts mention that these hells are situated in the seven grounds at the lower part of the universe.

The seven grounds are:

  1. Ratna prabha.
  2. Sharkara prabha.
  3. Valuka prabha.
  4. Panka prabha.
  5. Dhuma prabha.
  6. Tamaha prabha.
  7. Mahatamaha prabha.


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  1. Body
  2. Jain Cosmology
  3. Jainism
  4. Karma
  5. Sanskrit
  6. Soul
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