Published: 25.12.2008
Updated: 17.01.2012

'Nayavāda' is another doctrine of Jain philosophy. According to this theory, every thought is true from certain standpoint. No idea is false. How liberal this concept is! Whatever philosophies, sects, ideas exist in this world are all true. They become false only when they are absolute. If they are non-absolutistic they are true. This is accommodating attitude of Jain philosophy that gives due importance to other philosophies too.

Mainly, there are tw.o types of nayas, through which we *:an identify each substance:

    1. Dravyārthika Naya
    2. Paryāyārthika Naya

The eternal element of any substance and its changing state (i.e., mode) both work in union, both co-exist. The former is realized by Dravyārthika Naya and the latter by the Paryāyārthika Naya. The latter is concerned with 'mode' as the reality, while the former is only concerned with 'permanence' as the reality.

Mahāvīra accepted that both the views are true. Once, Somila asked Mahāvīra whether he was one or many. Mahāvira replied that he was one as well as many. He further said that from the point of view of substance, he was one, and from the point of view of mode (transformation), he was many.

Basically there are seven Nayas (view-points):

1. Naigama the view which accepts both identity and difference.
2. Saṃgraha the view that posits only non-difference.
3. Vyavahāra the view that posits only difference.
4. Ṛjusūtra the view that posits only the state existing at the present moment.
5. Śabda the view which assigns different meanings to a word according to different times or usages etc..
6. Samabhirūdha the view that assigns different meanings to the synonymous words on the basis of nuances according to their etymology.
7. Evaṃbhūta the view that assigns meaning to a word only on the basis of the present action of the person in which he is actually engaged.


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  1. Dravyārthika
  2. Dravyārthika Naya
  3. Evaṃbhūta
  4. Jain Philosophy
  5. Mahāvīra
  6. Naya
  7. Nayas
  8. Paryāyārthika
  9. Paryāyārthika Naya
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