Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science: [2.3.10] Atom In Jain Philosophy - Pudgala G.P. - Motion (Kriya)

Published: 11.10.2007
Updated: 06.08.2008

Pudgala - General Properties

Parinama and kriya are, but, two facets of the dynamic nature of pudgala. Kriya differs from parinama in a subtle way because it involves motion/movement of some kind or other. Actually, both are manifestations of dynamism, and therefore, gati (i.e. motion) has been included as one of the ten parinama as we have seen. However, motion in which kriya is involved is gross as well as subtle, while mutation {paryaya) involves, perhaps, very subtle type of gati.

We shall now discuss various kinds of motions which explain pudgala as being incessantly active.

In the annotation of Tattvartha Sutra, (5/6), if has been stated that pudgala and jiva are active (kriyavan) substances [Tat. Sut Bha., 5/6], whereas the other substances are niskriyah i.e. motionless [Tat. Sut, 5/6]. This means that out of the six substances, dharma, adharma and akasa are completely devoid of motion of any kind. Jiva is dynamic only in its worldly existence and its dynamism is due to

  1. its association with karma pudgala, and
  2. its interaction with other groups (vargana) because of its vital functions of pudgala.
[1] Just after emancipation, the emancipated soul goes straight upward in one samaya to the top of the cosmic universe. This ultimate upward movement of the emancipated soul is perfectly straight and due to combined causes of (i) an upward push given by the final release from the bodies (as a seed springing upwards from a dry pod when released), and (ii) Jiva's inability of sinking downwards, because of masslessness or going in any other direction, because it is bereft of its own motion.

Ultimately, when jiva attains emancipation [1], its association with physical order of existence comes to an end once for all. In its pure state, jiva becomes motionless.

Pudgala is, thus, the only substance, which has motion as its inherent attribute. At the same time, it should not be construed that the entire physical existence is active everywhere at all times and under all conditions. A physical body is sometimes in motion and sometimes at rest. [Bhag. Sut., 5/153-155]

Pudgala remains at rest on a single space-point for sometime before moving. In short, the dynamic state of pudgala is not continuous, but there are periods of intermittent rest [Bhag. Sut., 5/170]

Vibratory motion is one type of dynamic activity [Prav. Sar., Prad. Vrtti, 2/37], being an inherent attribute of pudgala. In other words, pudgala releases or absorbs energy because of its own competence to vibrate, and is thus dynamic in its own right [Tat. Sloka Var, 5/7/2].

There are many types of kriya (activity) and primarily each kriya is different from the other. But different types of energy-manifestations can be grouped together on different basis. On the basis of causality, there are two types of kriya:

  1. Spontaneous release of energy caused by its own innate capacity,
  2. Activation caused by external forces.

In another way, kriya is of two types:

  1. motion,
  2. fusion-fission.

Again the motion may be vibratory or migratory.
Vibrations are again of two types:

  1. simple,
  2. complex.

Two types of migratory motions are:

  1. without changing direction i.e. in a straight line,
  2. with change of direction.

In the Bhagavati Sutra [Bhag. Sut.2/3]a few instances of different kinds of motions are given thus: "Motion may be spontaneous or caused by outside forces. It is not eternal i.e. matter is sometime in motion and sometime at rest. It sometimes vibrates, and also rotates and so on up to the time when it changes its mode. By the word 'so on' here we understand that besides simple and complex vibrations, there are many other types of motion but what these are is a matter of research. We shall again deal with different kinds of vibrations later on in this chapter.

  • Jain Vishva Barati Institute, Ladnun, India
  • Edited by Muni Mahendra Kumar
  • 3rd Edition 1995

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Adharma
  2. Akasa
  3. Bhagavati Sutra
  4. Body
  5. Dharma
  6. Gati
  7. Jiva
  8. Karma
  9. Kriya
  10. Parinama
  11. Pudgala
  12. Samaya
  13. Sloka
  14. Soul
  15. Sutra
  16. Tattvartha Sutra
  17. Vargana
  18. Vrtti
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