Time (Substance)

Posted: 07.04.2019
When 'Time' substance is added to the concept of Pañcāstikāya, then these six together are collectively called as ' ṣ a ḍ dravya.' Time is an important factor in the context of the universe. In Jain tradition there are two concepts available regarding time. According to the first concept, time is not an independent substance. It is just the mode of living and non-living beings...

Synonymous Terms

Posted: 18.03.2019
There are many synonymous terms illustrated in Bhagavatī for all the five astikāyas. The synonymous terms for ākāśāstikāya, jīvastikāya and pudgalāstikāya are particularly expressing their nature or characteristics but synonyms of dharmāstikāya and adharmāstikāya are to be scrutinized further. dharma, dharmāstikāya refraining from...


Posted: 12.03.2018
The five ultimate existents- The Astikāyas (extended substances) viz., Dharmāstikāya (medium of motion), Adhartnāstikāya (medium of rest), Akāśāstikāya (space). Pudgalāstikāya (physical order of existence), Jīvāstikāya (soul)-these five real substances which are eternal and are in the form of the aggregates of Pradeśas (the indivisible units of the substance) or Paramā ṇus (the ultimate...


Posted: 20.02.2018
1. Spiritual doctrine - That which is the means to the purification of the soul, instrumental to the upliftment of the soul and different from the mundane affairs of benevolence ( Lokadharma ). ātmaśnddhisādhanaṃ dharmaḥ... ātmodayakārakatvena lokadharmādasau bhi- dyate... (Jaisidī 8.3,12) See - Lokadharma . 2. That substance which is an auxiliary medium of motion (for all moving objects)...


Posted: 19.02.2018
Substantial Loka (cosmos) - The Loka formed by the the Dravyas (fundamental substances); it comprises the Dravya , viz., Dharmāstikāya (combination) etc., the Jīva (soul) and the Ajīva (non-soul), the corporeals and non-corporeals, the entities with Pradeśas (the indivisible units of the substances) and without Pradeśa , and eternals and non-eternals. dravyaloko dravyaṇyeva dharmāstikāyādīni, āha...

Non–possession is a Religion

Posted: 01.07.2017
By Samani Agam Pragya
Ahiṁsā, Anekānta and Aprigraha - these three doctrines are the great contribution of Jain philosophy and religion to the world. Ahiṁsā , that is, non-hurting, non-killing, or friendliness towards all living beings. Anekānta, it is the understanding of the object or an event from multiple perspectives. Aprigraha , it is the non-possession or a feeling of non-attachment. In this paper I attempt to explain...


Posted: 17.01.2017
By Samani Agam Pragya
The specific attribute possessed of by the Dharmāstikāya (the fundamental substance qua medium of motion), by virtue of which it ( Dharmāstikāya ) assists the Jīva (soul) and the Pudgala (physical substance) in their motion (or movement) when they have developed a tendency to move. 'gamaṇaguṇe' tti jīvapudgalānāṃ gatipariṇatānāṃ gatyupaṣṭambhahetuḥ. (Bhaga 2.25 Vr)


Posted: 17.06.2016
By Samani Agam Pragya
Fundamental substance qua medium of rest - One of the six fundamental Dravyas (substances) or five Astikāyas (extended substances); the substance which is the unique inevitable medium of rest, passively assisting in the rest of the Jīvas (souls) and Pudgalas (physical substances) which are apt to undertake rest; it is only one (single) in number with respect to substance; it is eternal with respect to time,...

Causality and Pañca-Kāraṇa-Samavāya

Posted: 03.05.2016
By Prof. Dharmchand Jain
Centre of Jaina Studies Newsletter: SOAS - University of London The Department of Sanskrit, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (India) is engaged in research on Jain philosophical texts and tenets. Having obtained her PhD degree in this field under the supervision of the present writer, Dr Shweta Jain has worked on causality and the pañca-kāraṇa-samavāya doctrine of Jainism. Her work has been jointly...

Lord Śrī Mahāvīra (III)

Posted: 25.04.2016
The 14th Year as Kevalī From Campā the Lord left for Videha. At Kākandī city, the householder 'Khemaka' and 'Dhṛtidhara' took initiation and observing restraint and austerities for 16 years, in the end both became enlightened at the Vipula hill. Wandering, the Lord reached Mithilā and stayed there for the rainy season. Completing that, passing through Aṃgadeśa, the Lord reached Campā city and...