Constituents of Soul

Posted: 08.05.2019
 
The principle of jīva has been accepted in many philosophies. There is also a description about the soul's size. Soul being thumb's size or body size or all pervasive is also a subject matter of discussion. However, how many atoms or units it has, is not discussed anywhere besides, Jain philosophy. By denoting astikāya as composed of pradeśas, Mahavira has given a new dimension to the nature of...

Vertical Expansion of Time

Posted: 09.04.2019
 
Both Śvetambara and digambara traditions have accepted the existence of time but do not consider it as an astikāya (homogeneous continuums of units). Only those substances can be astikāya which are capable of forming an aggregate from its units. The past moments of time get lapsed and future moments have not come into existence. So, there cannot be any aggregate forms in time. What exists is only...

Time (Substance)

Posted: 07.04.2019
 
When 'Time' substance is added to the concept of Pañcāstikāya, then these six together are collectively called as ' ṣ a ḍ dravya.' Time is an important factor in the context of the universe. In Jain tradition there are two concepts available regarding time. According to the first concept, time is not an independent substance. It is just the mode of living and non-living beings...

Pudgalāstikāya (Matter)

Posted: 21.03.2019
 
There is a discussion on the concept of pudgala (matter) in all the Indian philosophies. However, there is a difference in the name, such as bhūta in Cārvāka, prak ṛ ti in Sānkhya, ja ḍ a-dravya in Nyāya - Vaiśe ṣ ika, rūpa in Buddhism, māyā in Śānkara Vedānta, and pudgala in Jain philosophy. Modern physics also deals mainly with the...

Why Soul and Matter Move Only in Cosmic Space

Posted: 16.03.2019
 
Soul (soul here refers to the worldly soul which is associated with karmic matter) and matter are moving substances. What assists in their movement, why is their movement restricted to cosmic space and why don't they go to trans-cosmos? - Inevitable questions. Jain literature of the post-canonical age, answers it as, that the soul and matter move with the assistance of dharmāstikāya and the...

Sustaining Strata of Cosmos

Posted: 02.03.2019
 
What is the basis of this visible world? According to purā ṇ as, snake, tortoise etc. are the support of the universe. Jain philosophy has elucidated on this. According to Jain philosophy the sustenance of the loka is of eight types: The air is sustained by the space The ocean is sustained by the air The earth is sustained by the ocean The mobile and immobile beings are sustained by the earth. The...

Structure of Cosmos and Trans-cosmos in Jain philosophy

Posted: 01.03.2019
 
Dravya loka (universe with respect to substance), K ṣ etra loka (universe with respect to space), Kāla loka (universe with respect to time) and Bhāva loka (universe with respect to modes) -these four loka are mentioned in the Bhagavati Sutra. The size of the cosmos is related to K ṣ etra loka. The area of trans-cosmos is described as an empty ball and it is covering the cosmos from all...

Ultimate Cause of Universe in Upaniṣads

Posted: 25.02.2019
 
Investigation for the prime cause of the universe has created multiple diverse beliefs which have been mentioned in upani ṣ ads. What is the prime cause of the universe? Is it existent or non-existent? If it is existent, then is it human or other than human i.e. born out of water, air, fire and space etc.? All these questions have been answered by the sages of Upani ṣ ad on account of their wisdom...

Investigation for the Ultimate Cause of Universe in Vedas

Posted: 24.02.2019
 
Dirghatama Rishi of Ṛgveda put forward the question for the prime-cause of the universe. The first stage of it is just the aptitude of question. When he doesn't get any answer or solution for his question, then he says -'I don't know.' Even then he doesn't give up his quest and says finally that one truth is explored with many dimensions by the scholars.' Existent is one but intellectual scholars explain...

Commentary Literature on Āgamas

Posted: 10.02.2019
 
In Jain religion and philosophy, there is a paramount place for Jain āgama literature. They are recognized as the collection of preaching of Lord Mahavira. Its significance can be well known by the plethora of literature written on those texts. Those explanatory literature can be found in various styles and with different names such as-Niryukti, Bhā ṣ ya, Cūr ṇ ī, Ṭ...