Pudgala - General Properties
Out of the four characteristic qualities of pudgala, viz. sparsa, rasa, gandha and varna, only the first one, i.e. the sparsa is mainly responsible for the process of fusion.
Jain sages by their profound knowledge of the structure of pudgala have established that the process of fusion of paramanus and production of skandhas follow some definite rules.
All forms of pudgala including paramanus possess the qualities of glueiness (snigdhatva) and dryness (ruksatva) of varying intensities. The minimum intensity is the unit (quantum) of intensities, and the intensity possessed by a composite body or a paramanu can always be expressed by an integral number and not by a fraction.
Fusion of paramanus with same as well opposite sparsa is possible.
But the fundamental rule is that the paramanus with unit intensity of dryness or glueiness cannot participate in the process.[ I.J.T., 1/17 "Snigdha-ruksatvad ajaghanya gunanam] This means that paramanus participating in a composition must possess more than unit intensity of dryness or glueiness.
When two paramanus possessing same kind of sparsa (say, glueiness) combine, the minimum difference between the intensities of their glueiness must be two units.[ U.T., 1:18 -"Dvyadhikadigunatve sadrsanam".] Similarly the minimum difference of two units of intensity between dryness of two paramanus enable them to combine. On the other hand, the paramanus with opposite sparsa i.e. dryness and glueiness would combine without qualifying minimum difference between their intensities. The 615th verse of Gommatsara says. "A gluey particle may combine with another gluey particle with a minimum difference of two units of glueiness. And this also is the rule in the case of dry particles. The combination of a gluey particle with a dry one is always possible, be they of the same or different intensities. But in all these three, the particles possessing the unit intensity i.e. one unit of each sparsa are excepted. [ Niddhassa niddhena duhayiyena, lukhassa lukkhena duhayiyena. Niddhassa lukkuenauvei bandho, jahnnavajjo visamo samo va. - Gommatasara, Jivakanda, gatha 615]
Thus, the eligibility of paramanus for the process of fusion can be summarized as follows:
The following table shows the permissible (or otherwise) combination of paramanus with different intensities of dryness and glueiness.
Intensity of Sparsa | Dry (+) with Dry (+) | Dry (+) with Gluey (-) |
Unit+unit | No | No |
Unit+2 units | No | No |
Unit+3 units | No | No |
Unit+4 or more units | No | No |
*X unit + X units | No | Yes |
X unit + (X+l) units | No | Yes |
X unit + (X+2) units | Yes | Yes |
X unit + (X+3) or more units | Yes | Yes |
*X is greater than one
Finally, the process of fusion can be classified from various aspects as under:
Fusion is two-fold:
- natural, and
- produced by an organism.
It is two-fold from another point of view viz.
- partial union, and
- total union
There are three causes for natural union: