Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science ► 02 ► [2.3.09] Atom In Jain Philosophy - Pudgala G.P. - Types Of Modification

Posted: 07.10.2007

Pudgala - General Properties

Modification is, thus, a primal property of pudgala, which therefore has a propensity of being active (parinami). And since the modification is infinite, activity is also infinite.

All modifications can, however, be grouped under two types:




Implicit Mode




Explicit Mode


    It is the intrinsic change in Pudgala. It is instantaneous, continuous (without pause), and incessant (timeless). This continuous flow of pudgala is parallel to the continuous flow of time. It is total self-interaction, [Cf. the discussion on self-interaction of sub-atomic particles in the first chapter.] and not caused by anything external. The implicit mode is neither perceivable nor expressible.

    on the other hand, may be intrinsic as well as extrinsic, and it has a duration. It is, in fact, an event in a particular part of space at a particular time.
    Besides the molecular integration and disintegration, that occur every moment in a physical object, the object may have a determinate state of existence - say, as a pen - for a certain duration of time. This state of being a pen is a vyanjana paryaya of pudgala.

    The explicit mode is gross, lasting for some time and amenable to verbal expression. The implicit mode, on the other hand, is subtle, lasting for only one satnaya (the time-point), and inexpressible.

From another point of view, the modes may be said of two types:

  1. svabhava paryaya - that is due to self-interaction.
  2. vibhava paryaya - that is due to interaction with other substances.

Thus, artha-paryaya is always svabhava parydya, while vyanjana- parydya is both svabhava and vibhava.

Share this page on: