Posted: 07.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Figures: Fig. 1: Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna watching the fight between Bhīma and Jarāsandha (Documentation No. 1); Photograph: Berlin Museum of Indian Art. Fig. 2: Kṛṣṇa lifting up Mt. Govardhana. Daśāvatāra Cave at Ellora (Documentation No. 35); Photograph: G. v. Mitterwallner. Fig. 3: Kṛṣṇa scenes on a pillar of the Mallikārjuna temple at Pattadakal (Documentation No. 38). Medaillon:...
Posted: 06.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 5. Documentation (K ṛṣṇ a) With the exception of the last section, the following documentation covers selected motifs from the larger field of Kṛṣṇa iconography. Specimens later than ca. 900 A.D. have - as a rule - not been included. § 5.1 Post-Kaṃsavadha Panels [Here and in other parts of the Documentation we use the oblique to separate the place of provenance from the collection where the...
Posted: 05.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 3. Classification in Kṛṣṇa Iconography The simplest classification is always the safest classification. Divisions showing considerable depth produce more problems than Divisions with minimal depth (two to three planes), complex features (true divisions) are less precise than features concerning details (pseudo-divisions). More often than not, true divisions are inaccurate because there is no...
Posted: 04.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 2. Classification in Viṣṇu Iconography Viṣṇu iconography shows a remarkable lack of uniformity. Not in the general sense that the "great gods" have always "many forms", but in the more specific sense that Viṣṇu iconography does not form a well defined area within the larger field of Hindu iconography. Before supplying a structural analysis of the Kṛṣṇa iconography we shall, therefore, try...
Posted: 01.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
(i) Minimal differentiation. This consists of three elements: attending goddess, attending god, symbol. All the three motifs differ from Jina to Jina (the total being 72). However, this pattern developed in stages, and even when it had reached its last phase, the three motifs did not play a very prominent part. (ii) Additional differentiation (additional, i.e. differing from the triple pattern according to...
Posted: 31.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 1.3 Divisions In the preceding discussion, the word "division" was used in the sense of a specific unit (value, class). It can, however, also be employed to designate the process of forming classes etc., and in this latter meaning (which is under consideration in the present section) we shall write the word invariably in capital letters. The term Division will cover at the same time the structure in its...
Posted: 30.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in the volume German Scholars on India - Contributions to Indian Studies Vol. II, Bombay: Nachiketa Publications Limited, 1976, pp. 26-50. Classification in Indian Iconography While going through the pages that follow, the reader will not only experience the general difficulties caused by all discussions of an abstract nature. He will also be faced with a more basic problem. The reader...
Posted: 28.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Figures: Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Drawing 1. Drawing 2.
Posted: 25.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 11. Bibliography/Abbreviations When referring to illustrations in the present paper we omit the reference to the place (simply “fig. 1“), and when referring to illustrations in other publications we omit in all unequivocal cases the reference to the type of illustration (simply “Kramrisch In 107“). “Neg. no.“ designates unpublished photos in our own collection. All technical terms have been...
Posted: 24.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 9. Taxonomy The study of an individual motif is concerned with both: collection and organization of the available data. A few general remarks concerning the methods of organization may, therefore, not be superfluous. Our formulation will be of a general nature, but we are mainly guided by the experience acquired in the present study. We can start from two primary planes: form and iconography. Form is...
Posted: 23.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 8. The fantastic tree In the medieval and post-medieval art of Central and Western India we come across a number of vegetable motifs which have no common denominator but which can perhaps be grouped together under the label “fantastic tree.“ This grouping suggests itself mainly in connection with the art of the post-medieval Jaina temple at Ranekpur (Crowe Tr, JRM fig. 179), but perhaps it is applicable...
Posted: 22.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 7. A.D. 900-1100: The banana plant in medieval art In medieval art we find invariably the calyx formula. The way in which it is employed marks a clear departure from the earlier and somewhat casual renderings. The motif is now included in the iconographic programmes of the steles as an element with a clear status. It is, however, no longer primarily connected with images of the Śaiva cycle. There is less...
Posted: 21.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 6. A.D. 750-950: The banana plant in early medieval art (supplement) It is unlikely that it would be the “small niche figures“ which attracted the banana plant motif. An alternative explanation of the facts presented in § 5 would be that the four relevant temples (and others belonging to the same period and area) reflect a more general predilection for banana plants as corner motifs (or corner fillers)...
Posted: 18.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 5. A.D. 750-900: The banana plant in early medieval art (niche figures) In the earlier periods, each specimen of the banana plant motif can be studied as an artistic realization in its own right. But as the number of specimens increase we wonder whether a classification (on morphological lines) might be possible. In discussing this issue we must distinguish between diversity (all related specimens form a...
Posted: 17.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 4. After A.D. 600: The banana plant in early medieval art (various specimens) In the present section we shall consider not only “Central India“ but the entire Northern belt. The first sites to the considered will be Nālanda, Paharpur, Mainamati and Muṇḍeśvarī. Photographs taken by Cl. and J. Bautze show that the banana plant occurs repeatedly on the panels above the plinth of a structure at...
Posted: 16.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
§ 2. Technical and methodical remarks We use the term “banana plant“ (“banana plant) both in descriptive and in analytic contexts. To demonstrate this difference we mention in connection with the word “kalaśa“ the phrases “Devī with kalaśa“ on the one hand (descriptive) and “pillar with pūrṇakalaśa capital“ on the other (analytic). Occasionally, the fuller form “banana plant motif“...
Posted: 15.05.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
A Vegetable Motif in Central Indian Art This essay is the fuller version of a paper read on the 24th German Oriental Conference ( XXIV. Deutscher Orientalistentag) held on September 26-30, 1988 in Cologne. I should like to express my gratitude to Prof. Peter Kunsmann for giving my English its final shape. Introduction On an earlier occasion, we had tried to establish a connection between a somewhat isolated...
Posted: 13.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Indologica Taurinensia (Vol. XI, 1983, pp. 27-75). § 9. The Universal History Literature on the Universal History is different from Varga Literature in so far as the latter potentially carries possibilities of endless variations whereas the former is concerned with a definite mythological subject, the history of the sixty-three great men. However, in terms of complexity and quantity...
Posted: 12.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Indologica Taurinensia (Vol. XI, 1983, pp. 27-75). § 7. Specifications vis-ā-vis § 6 (and figs. 1-2) ( Narrative units :) Our analyses (in parentheses) of the nine narrative units of Ant. do not refer to their contents but to the works Which are required to fill the gaps. These works are enumerated after the abbreviation va°REP, e.g. «va°REP (Ant., …)». The titles are...
Posted: 11.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Indologica Taurinensia (Vol. XI, 1983, pp. 27-75). § 5. Antakṛddaśāḥ We have selected the 8th aṅga Antakṛddaśāḥ in order to demonstrate the main types of repetition (§ 3) as found in Varga Literature. Ant. has been studied by A. Weber and W. Schubring. The translation by L. D. Barnett (Barnett, Ant.) was to a large extent the basis of our analysis. For the Digambara...
Posted: 10.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Indologica Taurinensia (Vol. XI, 1983, pp. 27-75). § 3. Var ṇ aka-Repetition and Hero-Variation Repetition in Indian literature can be studied in more than one way. Scholars have made numerous observations in different parts of Indian literature, narrative and non-narrative, which demonstrate the enormous role played by repetition. But it is difficult to arrange the material in a...
Posted: 09.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Indologica Taurinensia (Vol. XI, 1983, pp. 27-75). § 1. Introduction By using the word «repetition» in the title of the present paper we do not want to indicate that we are concerned with a well-defined phenomenon. As a consequence, no systematic presentation or classification can be envisaged. We can also not claim to have come across specific repetition phenomena which have not...
Posted: 06.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35. (17) Bibliography Āc Ācāradaśāḥ (Daśāśrutaskandha). Alsdorf Ut L. Alsdorf , The Āryā Stanzas of the Uttarajjhāyā. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur . Mainz 1966 [pp. 1-68]. ĀvSū Āvaśyaka Sūtra. Balbir Qu N. Balbir , Souper de jour: quatrains. Indologica Taurinensia XIV.1987-88:...
Posted: 04.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35. We present in abbreviated form and in translation ( Williams Jy: 213) a prose passage of part V: “... making penance, making purification, extracting evil from myself, I stand in the kāyotsarga in order to make an end to sinful acts. With the exception of inhaling and exhaling, coughing and sneezing,... very slight movements...
Posted: 02.04.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35. Selected subjects (11-15) 11-12: Overview of selected subjects (drinking and walking); 13-14: quasi-meditation ( tapas ) and true meditation ( kāyôtsarga, vyutsarga ); 15: āyariya and antevāsī (scholasticism). (11) Drinking, washing, cleanliness. Considering thirst and exposure of the body to heat, considering the rule to...
Posted: 30.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35. Incongruous units (monastic), terms forming chains (canonical): 1-4 (1) Āvaśyaka Sūtra . Bruhn Āv: 22-25; Leumann Üb: 6-8, 16-19 ( Baumann Āv: 15-18 and 44-54); Dundas Jn: 169-173; JĀGM (Āv): 333-358. - Six basic parts: sāmāyika (equanimity, 'pious conduct'), caturviṃśatistava (praise of the 24 Jinas), vandana...
Posted: 28.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35. II. Terms in Jaina ethics (the canon) We add to Jaina 'Sects and Schools' an overview on canonical Jaina ethics. Translations explaining the terms follow the publications of H. Jacobi if not stated otherwise. There is the multiple opposition between monastic ethics and householders' ethics, between ethics and soteriology...
Posted: 26.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35. I. Structure of Jainism (sects and schools) There are various lines in the history of Jainism, but matters are made comprehensible (i) by the presence of two pairs of opposites: Śvetāmbaras and Digambaras, mūrtipūjaka s (Śvet.) and amūrtipūjaka s (Śvet.). There is furthermore (ii) in medieval times and earlier the...
Posted: 23.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 12. Bibliography A. Ancient Texts Ka “ Ka“ stands for the (unpublished?) Kanarese manuscript (text) on which Jas. B urgess ' (Alexander R ea's ) document of the YY was based. The descriptions are not identical with those of the Prati ṣṭ hāsāroddhāra. Hingorani Di: 9; G lasenapp Jn: 532-533;...
Posted: 22.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 11. Abbreviations and Terminology Ambikā The position of Ambikā follows from the context. Apart from “K-and-A“ we have not used special terms. Common denominator: mango bunch and child(ren). See §§ 3-6. Apraticakrā Identical with → Cakreśvarī. Attendant deity Any deity, identified or not, in...
Posted: 21.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 10. List of Figures and Notes (IV) Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Figs. 15-17. § 5. Three niche figures of Deogarh Temple No. 12. A.D. 850-900. Fig. 15 published Tiwari Ch: pl. 21, fig. 1. - Fig. 15 (Cakreśvarī: JID, fig. 55), fig. 16 (Ambikā: JID, fig. 58) and fig. 17 (Sarasvatī: JID, fig. 52). The male figure to...
Posted: 20.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 10. List of Figures and Notes (III) Fig. 11 § 3. Kubera in the Jaina compound of Deogarh (Wall-Section VII, see JID: fig. 392). A.D. 950-1000. - It is not possible to say whether the slab is complete or part of a larger composition. The figure is at any rate Jaina, as there has never been a Hindu temple in the area...
Posted: 19.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 10. List of Figures and Notes (II) Fig. 6 § 3 . Kubera-and-Ambikā. Gwalior Fort. Rock-cut. A.D. 700-800. - This is the only great multi-figured relief of K-and-A in Northern India, and perhaps the only case where K-and-A appear together but not below a dominating Jina. We have published the relief already twice (JID:...
Posted: 16.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 10. List of Figures and Notes (I) Fig. 1 § 2. Jaina couple from Sahet-Mahet, now State Museum, Lucknow. A .D. 800-900. S hah Pa: fig.11c. - If better preserved, the piece would show some interesting iconographic details. Compare for posture, and style, K rishna Gu: pls. 53 (Umā and Maheśvara) and 93 (Kubera and wife)...
Posted: 15.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 9. Questions of the “Interested Layman“ Didactic as well as more general considerations have prompted us to attach considerable importance to the subject of questions arising in the mind of the observer. An interested layman may ask the following questions (some discussed above, some not): Why are so many Jina images...
Posted: 14.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 8. Text and Image The present article is largely connected with text-image differences. We have mentioned the problem already at the end of § 4. Below we shall treat the issue again in a more general manner. We will distinguish between various forms of text-image differences. There is - our first type - a difference...
Posted: 13.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 7. The Concept of Type In connection with Bruhn Gr I, two corrections/additions are necessary. They concern the concept of type (Bruhn Gr I: §§ 2-3, also JID: ch. 22) and the issue of text-image differences (B ruhn Gr I: § 1). See our sections 7-8 (and 6). Type is not a basic unit like “motif or “motifeme“ in...
Posted: 12.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 6. The Real Pantheon Jaina gods and goddesses are an important element of Jaina iconography. Since we have invalidated the traditional system of YY, we are now forced to supply another frame for the Jaina deities. Hence our concept of the “real pantheon“ which will be described below. The “real pantheon“...
Posted: 09.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 5. The Attendant Deities of the “Fuzzy Period“ After the K-and-A period follows a period of confusion which is the subject of the present section: confusion due to the parallelism of the old K-and-A formula and the elements of the system; confusion also in the sense of general mixture (no quasi-systematic syncretism)...
Posted: 08.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 4. The System In the case of the 24 yakṣas and 24 yakṣīs we have texts and images. However, we cannot derive the images from the texts, nor (as is possible in other cases) text elements from the images. We maintain that the connection between both sides is limited to a few cases (out of a total of forty-eight). The...
Posted: 07.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 3. Kubera and Ambikā (K-and-A) As previously indicated, Kubera-and-Ambikā form, on the whole, a triple subject: both together (K-and-A), Kubera alone (“Kubera independent“), and Ambikā alone (“Ambikā independent“). We start with the emergence of Ambikā and Kubera from earlier iconographic levels. [A: A...
Posted: 06.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 2. The Jaina Couple The absence of literary references to the well-known Jaina couple has led to a number of more or less tentative designations. We mention the following: “ a family group“ (P al E x: 174-175), “ Gomedha and Ambikā“ ( K ramrisch Hi II: pl. 54; M ohapatra Or: passim), “ Jain tutelary couple“ (...
Posted: 05.03.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 13/14. 2000, pp. 273-337 . § 1. Introduction The present article is the continuation of Grammar I, and Grammar I should be read as an introduction to the present article. The subject matter of Grammar II is complicated, but I have tried to make the text as readable as possible. The photo section is primarily a didactic supplement, but it includes a...
Posted: 17.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 22. Abbreviations An explanation of the terms used by us will be found in Chapter 1 of JID (deviations from JID are kept to a minimum). References consisting merely of the title abbreviation and a figure refer always to reproductions as numbered in the relevant publication. In the case of JID, reference is generally made to...
Posted: 17.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 21. Photographs (III) Fig. 7. Temple No.13: Image No.134, §§ 13 and 18. Fig. 8. Debris to the west of the Rampart: image without number, classification not possible, § 13. Our Neg. 2032 shows a somewhat greater part of the fragment. Fig.9. Temple No. 12, vimāna, pradakṣiṇāpatha: No.(?), classification on the basis of...
Posted: 16.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 21. Photographs (I) In contrast to the photo section in IJI, we have collected below mainly addenda to JID but few photos which are relevant to particular points in our arguments. In addition to the eight reproductions (2-9), we have given a short description of eight further pieces (10*-17*). In the text of our essay,...
Posted: 16.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 21. Photographs (II) Fig. 4. Temple No. 12, vimāna, pradakṣiṇāpatha: No.(?), § 13. This image clearly belongs to the Uncouth Class. Fig. 5. W VIII: Image No. 47, §§ 13-14, 18. See also JID 84 (No.46) and AJI 11. Fig. 6. W IX: Image No. 135, §§ 13 and 18.
Posted: 15.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 19. Further observations on the parikara-top (squares 1 -20) Scope for variation and innovation is mainly provided by the pedestal and by the parikara-top. However, in the case of our sub-corpus, pedestal variation is very rare (see AJI 7 and similar cases), and the only image to have an innovative and elaborate parikara-top...
Posted: 14.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 17. The garland-bearers (sixteen remaining squares) The “remaining squares“ (1-4, 7-10, 13-20) accommodate the garland-bearers and the abhiṣeka-elephants, as far as they are present. Single garland-bearers and garland-bearing couples appear within the corpus side by side (e.g. compare JID 113, JID 114). The various...
Posted: 10.02.2012
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
The essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 2. 1986, pp. 133-174 . § 15. Main figure and bhāmaṇḍala We distinguish in the case of the main figure (Jina figure) between three sets of peculiarities which overlap to some extent: anatomical peculiarities in general, rendering of the hair (morphology of the hair and morphology of the uṣṇīṣa), attributes (i.e. attributes in general). (i)...

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